Anime Companion Supplement - Y


Ya - Yam - Ye - Yo - Yu

This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2.

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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
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4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations


yagen やげん or 薬研
A device consisting of a round wheel shaped blade with a rod for a handle through the center and a elongated boat like base with a trough in it that herbs or other items would be placed in. The blade is held by both ends of the rod and rolled back and forth in the base to break up the items in the trough by a combination of cutting, crushing and grinding.
Anime:
In Spirited Away Kamaji, played by Sugawara Bunta, uses a yagen to grind herbs for the various baths.
In Samurai X Trust and Betrayal we have a great view of Kenshin preparing kusuri (drugs) in a yagen.
In Samurai Champloo (ep.1) a yagen is visible behind fireworks maker as Fuu talks to him.
Sources:
Brinkley, Frank. Brinkley's Japanese-English Dictionary p.1604
Rathbun, William Jay. Yō no Bi: The Beauty of Japanese Folk Art p.45
yagura (stage) 櫓 or 矢倉 or やぐら (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.145)
Sources:
Festivals of Japan p.172
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.113
Yagyū 柳生
Presently Yagyū is a district in Nara (The Anime Companion 2 p.61), specifically in the North East part of the city. Originally it was a village most famous as the home of the Yagyūshi (Yagyū family).
Anime:
The village is seen in Ninja Resurrection (ep.2)
Manga:
In Lone Wolf and Cub (v. 23 p.65) Retsudo orders Rokusai to take the women to Yagyū village.
Volume 6 of Vagabond opens with Takuan Sōhō (The Anime Companion 2 p.96) approaching Yagyū and in volume 9 Miyamoto Musashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86) goes to the village.
The story recounted by Katsu Kaishū (The Anime Companion 2 p.42) in Samurai Legend opens in Yagyū
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1720

YAGYŪ FAMILY see: Yagyūshi

Yagyū Hyōgonosuke Toshiyoshi 柳生兵庫助利厳 OLD FORM 柳生兵庫助利嚴
Also known as Yagyū Toshitoshi. The grandson of Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi. Toshiyoshi was made head of the Owari branch of the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū by his grandfather and also became the head of the family, residing in Yagyū village in Owari while his famous uncle, Yagyū Munenori, was to head the Edo Yagyū. Toshiyoshi was sword instructor of the Owari branch of the Tokugawa family (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) and among his students was Tokugawa Yoshinao. According to legend he is said to have once even met Miyamoto Musashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86), they spent time together drinking sake (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109), playing Go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36) and talking. There are no records that Musashi ever met other members of the Yagyūshi (Yagyū family). Toshiyoshi even studied Shingonshū (Shingon sect of Buddhism) and Zen (The Anime Companion 2 p.122) Buddhism to improve his concentration in the hopes of improving his skill with the sword.
Anime:
Yagyū Toshiyoshi is mentioned in Samurai Deeper Kyo (ep.4)
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.90-91
Wilson, William Scott. The Lone Samurai: The Life of Miyamoto Musashi p.86, 89
Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi 柳生十兵衛三厳 FORMAL 柳生十兵衞三嚴 (The Anime Companion 2 p.113)
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook
Turnbull, Stephen. The Lone Samurai and the Martial Arts p.131)
Yagyū Munenori 柳生宗矩
1571-1646 Son of Yagyū Muneyoshi. Born in Yagyūnoshō (Yagyū village), which today is part of the city of Nara (The Anime Companion 2 p.61). He was a master swordsman who learned his skill from his father. When his father was requested by Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) to become the sword teacher for the Tokugawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) family he declined as he was getting old and suggested Munenori be given the position instead. Munenori was to serve under three shōguns Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada, and Tokugawa Iemitsu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102). On his retirement he passed the leadership of the Edo Yagyū Shinkage-ryū to his son Yagyū Jubei (The Anime Companion 2 p.113). Legend has it that Munenori was the head of a group of ninja spies gathering information for the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8). After the Battle Of Sekigahara (Sekigahara no Tatakai, The Anime Companion 2 p.81) he was significantly rewarded in spite of not having fought in the battle itself, this as led some to speculate that his contribution was a covert one. He also took part in the Ōsaka no Jin (Battle of Ōsaka Castle), where he saved the life of Tokugawa Hidetada. He was given the office of Ōmetsuke, inspector general, handling surveillance of the daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15). His descendants continued to be sword instructors for the rest of the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25)
Anime:
Yagyū Munenori is mentioned in episode 4 of Samurai Deeper Kyo and shows up in Ninja Resurrection (ep.2)
Manga:
Yagyū Munenori and his sons are mentioned by Ogami in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.3 p.176)
As Samurai Legend is about Jubei it is not surprising that his father is also in the story. (p.9, 18, 49)
Yagyū Munenori is a major character in volume 9 of Vagabond.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1720
Turnbull, Stephen. Ninja The True Story of Japan's Secret Warrior Cult p.90
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.90
Wilson, William Scott. The Lone Samurai: The Life of Miyamoto Musashi p.88

YAGYŪ MUNEYOSHI SEKISHŪSAI see: Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi

Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi 生石舟斎宗厳 OLD FORM 柳生石舟齋宗嚴
1527-1606 An accomplished swordsman, Muneyoshi fought in his first battle at the age of 16 on the side of Miyoshi Chōkei against Tsutsui Junshō. In 1563 Muneyoshi was introduced to Kamiizumi Nobutsuna by the monk Kakuzenbo Hoin In'ei who arraigned a match between them. The first match was against Nobutsuna's student Hikida Bungorō, who instead of using the usual bokken (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.12) used a shinai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.119), a very new device for practicing sword fighting. After Muneyoshi's defeat he was challenged by Nobutsuna, instead of fighting he asked to become a student. After two years of training Yagyū Muneyoshi was named Nobutsuna's successor and founded the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū. In 1594 Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) requested a demonstration of the school's techniques. So impressed he grabbed a bokken and fought against Muneyoshi, who defeated Ieyasu barehanded. Impressed Ieyasu asked Muneyoshi to become the sword teacher for the Tokugawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) family, Muneyoshi declined as he was elderly and instead proposed that his son Yagyū Munenori be given the position, which he was.
Manga:
Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi is mentioned in Samurai Legend (p.11)
In Chapter 65 of Vagabond (v.7) the meeting between Kamiizumi Nobutsuna and Muneyoshi is seen.
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.90-91

YAGYU SEKISHŪSAI see: Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi

YAGYÛ TAJIMA-NO-KAMI MUNENORI see: Yagyū Munenori

Yagyūshi (Yagyū family) 柳生氏
A landowning family of famous swordmen. Originally from the village of Yagyū near Nara (The Anime Companion 2 p.61). To survive in the Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) the family served under other stronger daimyo of the area. In the early Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) they became sword instructors to the Tokugawa family (Tokugawashi The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137). The Yagyū mon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89) was that of a hat with the cords hanging below.
Manga:
The Yagyū clan are significant players in Lone Wolf and Cub, Vagabond (v.7 & 9) and Samurai Legend.
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen The Samurai Sourcebook p.73, 90

yakimeshi (fried rice) やきめし or 焼き飯 The old form in the book is incorrect I am unable to correctly display it here. (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)
Sources:
Eating in Japan p.79
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.31, 172
yakimono (grilled foods) やきもの or 焼き物
Grilled foods. There are several forms of this simple method of cooking food. It can be on an iron plate (teppan; The Anime Companion 2 p.99), griddle (yakiami), glazed pottery plate or slab (tōban), portable stove (konro), ceramic brazier (shichirin; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.117), or staked next to the fire in a sunken hearth (irori; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50). Popular yakimono include yakitori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146), kushi-dango (The Anime Companion 2 p.52), tōmorokoshi (The Anime Companion 2 p.105), shioyaki, and Kabayaki.
Anime:
Hungry tanuki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.133), poorly 'translated' as raccoons, are unable to keep human shape while walking by a yakimono stand in Pom Poko.
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.172
yakiniku (grilled meat) やきにく or 焼き肉
Grilled meat. This is usually done in what was originally a Korean style where you cook the meat on grill or an iron plate on or built into the table. Sometimes charcoal is used for heat. This can be done at home or enjoyed in a Korean BBQ restaurant (yakiniku-ya; The Anime Companion 2 p.114). Not only are slices of meat, usually beef, used but also various innards and vegetables. A spicy tare is used to flavor the meat. In restaurants kimuchi (kim chi) will often be also served.
Manga:
Onizuka proposes yakiniku for dinner, Ryuji proposes that it's Onozuka treat, Onizuka proposes they just get coffee instead in GTO The Early Years (v.1 p. 272)
Goto and Tsukamoto enjoy yakiniku and beer (bīru; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.10) in Old Boy (v.4 p.112), the wire grills are round and inset into the tables.
Kido tell Hata he expects yakinuki for him and Kasumi in Rose Hip Zero (v.3 p.54)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.172.
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.50.
Satterwhite, Robb. What’s What in Japanese Restaurants p.128-129.
yakiniku-ya (Korean BBQ restaurants) やきにくや or 焼き肉屋 or 焼肉屋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi World Food Japan p.111
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.172
yakisoba (fried noodles) 焼そば (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.145)
Sources:
Eating in Japan p.97, 125
yakitori やきとり or 焼き鳥 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)
Sources:
Outlook on Japan p.146
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.172
yakitori-ya 焼き鳥屋 or やき鳥や
Outdoor stalls (yatai; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.147) and small casual restaurants which specialize in serving yakitori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) and grilled vegetables with drinks, often beer (bīru; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.10). These are popular places for relaxing after work or with neighbors. Yakitori-ya can be found in many entertainment districts and be recognized not only by the word yakitori on the noren (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.96) often with a red lantern (aka-chōchin; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.4) outside or by the smell of the grilling of the food.
Manga:
Uchiyamada suggests that instead of teaching Onizuka could get a job at a 'yakitori shop' where he could drink lots of beer and everyone would be happy in GTO (v.14 ch 109)
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.195
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.16
Satterwhite, Robb. What’s What in Japanese Restaurants p.84

YAKUSHI TEMPLE see: Yakushiji (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)

Yakushiji 薬師寺 OLD FORM 藥師寺 (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1721
Web Sites:
Yakushiji official site.
yakuza (gangster) やくざ (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1721-23
Schodt, Frederik. America and the Four Japans p.88, 103

YAKUZA BOSS see: oyabun - kobun (parent role - child role)

YAM see: yamanoimo (yam) (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)

yamabushi (mountain ascetic) 山伏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia 1724
Earhart, H. Byron. A Religious Study of the Mount Haguro Sect of Shugendo
Blacker, Carmen. The Catalpa Bow

YAMABUSHI see also: En no Gyōja (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.28)

Yamada Asaemon 山田浅右衞門
Also known as Yamada Kubikiri Asaemon and Kubikiri Asaemon, Kubikiri mean 'head chop'. This is not the name of one person, rather it is the professional name for a lineage of executioners in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18). In all there were eight executioners who had the name Yamada Asaemon, the name was passed from father to son. The final execution by the eighth and last Yamada Asaemon was on January 30 1879 when Takahashi Oden was executed. She became hysterical calling the name of her lover and thereby so distracted Asaemon that he did not do a clean job and she continued to yell her lover's name. Two years later Asaemon became a sword inspector.
Manga:
Yamada Asaemon Yoshitsugu, the third Yamada Asaemon, is the main character in Samurai Executioner.
In volume 5 of Lone Wolf and Cub (ch.27) the third Yamada Asaemon is sent by government officials to kill Ōgami Ittō. Page 159 of this volume lists the generations of the various Yamada Asaemon.
Sources:
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.59-60
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.54
Yamagata Aritomo 山県有朋 OLD FORM 山縣有朋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1726
Yamaguchi ken 山口県 OLD FORM 山口縣 (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1727
Road Atlas Japan p. 86 B4
Web Sites:
Yamaguchi Prefecture www (official site)

YAMAGUCHI PREFECTURE see: Yamaguchi ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)

YAMAIMO see: yamanoimo (yam) (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)

yamakujira (mountain whale) 山鯨 or やまくじら
A euphemism for wild boar (see: inoshishi, The Anime Companion 2 p.32) that originated at a time when Buddhism (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) prohibited the eating of mammal meat but considered the whale to be a fish. This was also the name of a specific shop in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) on the Kokufu road that sold meat from wild game. Often such meat would be eaten under the fiction that it was consumed for medicinal reasons which was allowed under Buddhist rules.
Anime:
In episode 3 of Ghost Slayers Ayashi we see Yuki treat Outa to botan-nabe (boar meat hotpot) in a "mountain whale" shop, the sign outside clearly says "Yamakujira" in Japanese.
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman. Japan From A to Z p.73.
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.60-61

YAMAMBA see: ganguro (black face)

Yamamoto Kansuke 山本勘助
? - 1561 One of the famous 'Twenty-Four Generals of the Takeda clan. Yamamoto Kansuke was one eyed and is famous as a strategist. Originally he was a minor figure who was recommended as a soldier for the Takeda army by Itagaki Nobutaka. Late in his life Yamamoto Kansuke became a Buddhist monk (bōzu), however he continued his duties as a samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110). His helmet was decorated with buffalo horns made of wood, his mon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89) was in the shape of a kongōsho (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.73). He died in the fourth battle of Kawanakajima fighting after he thought his plan to defeat the Uesugi had failed and he had charged the enemy with a long yari (spear)). He had something like 80 wounds, many from bullets, when he stepped away from the fighting and committed seppuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.115). There are several fictional tales of his life; the famous novel, The Samurai Banner of Furin Kazan by Inoue Yasushi, is available in English, as is the movie Samurai Banners staring Mifune Toshiro as Yamamoto Kansuke and he is the subject of the 2007 NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.96) Taiga Drama entitled Furin Kazan.
Manga:
Kato Danzo mentions Yamamoto Kansuke in Path of the Assassin (v.1 p.215), later Yamamoto shows up in volume four (p.63), his death in volume five is different than the historical account.
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. Battles of the Samurai p.49
Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Heraldry p.C7, 29, 58
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.91, 271
Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Warriors p.64
Yamanami Keisuke 山南敬助
1833-1865. Yamanami Keisuke was the second son of the Sendai Han chief swordsmanship (kenjutsu; The Anime Companion 2 p.45) instructor. Yamanami visited the Shieikan and challenged Kondō Isami (The Anime Companion 2 p.49) to a match, after Yamanami was defeated he joined the dōjō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.23) and along with Okita Sōji (The Anime Companion 2 p.68) and Hijikata Toshizō (The Anime Companion 2 p.28) served as an assistant instructor. He joined them when they left Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) for Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) as part of the Rōshigumi where Yamanami soon became a captain or vice-commander and one of the founding members of the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86). In 1865, due to growing differences with commanders Kondo and Hijikata he wrote a letter of explanation and deserted the Shinsengumi. Desertion was an offense that carried the death penalty. Okita was sent to retrieve him and found him in Otsu (The Anime Companion 2 p.70). When Yamanami returned he was sentenced to commit seppuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.115), he asked Okita to be his second (kaishakunin; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59)
Anime and Manga:
Yamanami is a character in Peacemaker Kurogane (v.1 p.106) and the related Peacemaker anime where he first appears in episode 4.
Manga:
Yamanami also shows up in Kaze Hikaru (v.1 p.31)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shōgun's Last Samurai Corps p.29, 33, 41-43
yamanoimo (yam) やまのいも or 山の芋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)
Source:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p. 277
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.173
yama no kami (god of the mountain) 山の神
The kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) of a mountain. Such kami are categorized into three broad types. Farmers worship a type that comes down from the mountain and becomes the ta no kami (kami of the fields) and returns to the mountain after the harvest, this kami is also a personification of the ancestors. For mountain dwellers such as hunters, charcoal makers and woodcutters the yama no kami is either a male of female kami depending on the mountain. For lathe workers, who are somewhat itinerant and live in forests the yama no kami is a married couple. In Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) the yama no kami are identified as two fearsome kami; the male kami Ōyamatsumi no kami or the female kami Konohana no Sakuyahime. Yama no kami festivals ate usually held on the 7th, 9th, 12th or 17th day of February, October, or November. Okoze, a type of ocean fish, is a common food offering (see: shinsen (food offerings to kami) to yama no kami. The term is also used by husbands to refer for their own wife on conversation.
Anime:
The yama no kami is mentioned by Shun in Shonen Onmyouji (ep 8).
In Priest of Mt. Kouya the priest prays to the "gods of mountains".
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.74
Bocking, Brian. Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.220
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1732
Otsuki Hiroshi & Bradley Grindstaff. Cultural Keys p.47, 139

YAMANOTE LINE see: Yamanote Sen (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)

Yamanote Sen (Yamanote Line) 山手線 (The Anime Companion 2 p.115)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p. 1732
Condon, Jack and Camy Condon. The Simple Pleasures of Japan p.128
Yamashina 山科 [区] (The Anime Companion 2 p.116)
Source:
Daily Life in Japan at the Time of the Samurai p. 167
Kyōto-Ōsaka: A Bilingual Atlas p.10, 29

YAMATA NO OROCHI see: Susanoo-no-Mikoto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127)

Yamato 大和 (The Anime Companion 2 p.116)
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 526
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1735
Yamato (battleship) 大和 (The Anime Companion 2 p.116)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1735
Yamayoshi Morisuke山吉盛典 (The Anime Companion 2 p.116)
Sources:
Iwata Masakazu. Ōkubo Toshimichi p.252
Yamazaki Susumu 山崎烝
? - 1868. An Ōsaka (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.102) rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) who joined the Rōshigumi in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) becoming a captain or assistant vice-commander. He was an expect in staff fighting. Yamazaki carried out spy duties and was one of the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) members assigned to investigate the Ikeda'ya by Kondō Isami (The Anime Companion 2 p.49). He died in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Toba-Fushimi no Tatakai; The Anime Companion 2 p.100)
Anime and Manga:
Yamazaki shows up in Peacemaker (ep 1) and Peacemaker Kurogane (v.1 p.10).
Manga:
In Kaze Hikaru (v.4 p.136) Yamazaki shows up as a spy.
In Rurouni Kenshin (v.2 p.48) the author writes about how the character Han'nya was partly based on Yamazaki Susumu.
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shōgun's Last Samurai Corps p.33, 73-74, 142, 198
yanagi (willow) 柳 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1701

YANAGIDA KUNIO see: Yanagita Kunio

Yanagita Kunio 柳田国男 OLD FORM 柳田國男
1875 - 1962 Long considered the founder of Japanese folklore studies. He was born in Hyōgo Ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.29) the 6th son of Matsuoka Misao a teacher, Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) priest, and scholar. Kunio studied law at Tōkyō Daigaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.138) graduating in 1900. He married into the wealthy and powerful Yanagita family taking their name. He worked as a bureaucrat, first for the Ministry of Agriculture then other offices, until 1919, then for the Asahi Shinbun until 1930. From 1930 to his death he focused on folklore, a subject that had interested him for many years. During his lifetime he wrote over 1,000 articles and 100 books. His Tōno Monogatari, an early work on folklore, was published in 1910, an English translation, The Legends of Tōno, was published in 1975. He was also a poet and literary writer who worked with and associated with many Japanese writers of his time. His name is also sometimes erroneously written as Yanagida Kunio.
Manga:
Kunio is seen asking Shimazaki Tōson how his novel is coming in The Times of Botchan (v.2 p.61)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1738
Yanagita Kunio. Legends of Tōno p.xxiii - xxvii
Yanagita Kunio. The Yanagita Kunio Guide to the Japanese Folk Tale p.vii - ix

YANKEE see: yankī (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)

yankī ("yankee," juvenile delinquent) ヤンキー (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)
Sources:
Sato, Ikuya. Kamikaze Biker p.112-
yaoi やおい (The Anime Companion 2 p.116)
Source:
Schodt, Frederik. Dreamland Japan p.37

YAOI/BOYS LOVE FANS see:
fujoshi (rotten woman)
fudanshi (rotten man) 腐男子

Yao-yorozu-no-kami (eight million gods) 八百万神
A term used to describe the vast number heavenly and earthly kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) in Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121). The term does not refer to an exact number but is symbolic of not only a large number but also that the number of kami continues to increase.
Anime:
The bathhouse in Spirited Away is described as a place of rest for the eight million gods.
Manga:
In Welcome to the NHK (v.1 p.115) Misaki thinks in that the term eight million is too many, Satou points out that it can also mean myriads.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.26
Bocking, Brian. Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.221
yari (spear)
The spear. These can range in length from 3 to 4 meters in length for mounted fighters to longer ones for ashigaru (The Anime Companion 2 p.6). The ashigaru of Oda Nobunaga (The Anime Companion 2 p.65) had the longest yari at 5.6 meters in length. Some yari have one or two cross blades attached at the base of the point, these are refered to as kamayari. In the Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) yari became the weapon of choice for warriors on horseback replacing the earlier popularity of the naginata (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.91) and bow. Like the sword the yari will show up in any story with warriors set in pre-modern times.
Anime:
The opening sequence of the Runouni Kenshin anime Samurai X Trust and Betrayal shows the use of yari by bandits against travelers.
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.126
Frederic, Louis. Dictionary of the Martial Arts p.264
Ratti, Oscar and Adele Westbrook. Secrets of the Samurai p. 241-253
Draeger, Donn F. Classical Bujutsu p.35, 71-72
Turnbull, Stephen and Howard Gerrard. Ashigaru p.18-19, 22-23

YARIJITTE see: karakuri jitte

Yasaka Jinja (Yasaka Shrine) 八坂神社
A Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) shrine (see: jinja (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54) located on the Eastern edge of the Gion (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35) district in Higashiyama-ku in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77). This shrine was called Gionsha (usually translated as Gion Shrine), Gion Tenjin and Kanshinin until the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) when the name was officially changed to remove associations with Buddhism (see: Bukkyō The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15). Enshrined here are Susanoo-no-mikoto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127), his consort and eight of their children. Founded in 876 in the hope of divine intervention against epidemics and disasters. The exact origin of the shrine is unsure though many agree it was originally for the Gozu Tenno who was identified as the Buddhist version of Susanoo no Mikoto. By the 10th century the shrine was very popular and known for protecting against illness, vengeful ghosts (see: goryō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36), prosperity and for protecting warriors. It was the tutelary shrine of cotton merchants. About 3,000 branch shrines (bunsha) were established throughout Japan. The famous Gion Matsuri (The Anime Companion 2 p.23) is associated with this shrine. The present honden (main shrine) dates from 1654 when it was last reconstructed in the Gion-zukuri style. The famous West Gate dates from the Muromachi Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90).
Manga:
Sei and some of the others from the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) go to Gion shrine for the New Year shrine visit (see: hatsumōde, (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.42) in Kaze Hikaru (v.11 p.100), the others want to go drinking, Sei wants to pay respencts and get okerabi.
Sources:
Bilingual Atlas of Kyoto 30 D4 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.221
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.202
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1739
Kyoto-Osaka A Bilingual Atlas 38 D5
Plutschow, Herbert E. Historical Kyōto: With Illustrations and Guide Maps p.105
Röpke, Ian Martin. Historical Dictionary of Osaka and Kyoto p.237
Web Site:
Yasaka Shrine English Site
Yasha 夜叉 or 藥叉 or 夜乞叉
From the Sanskrit word Yakṣa. In Japan there are two meanings for the term. The common meaning is a kind of demon, especially the female ones, who are harmful to men, even to the point of eating them. In Buddhist terminology the term also refers to a fearsome class of supernatural being that is a protector of Buddhism (see: Bukkyō The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15). They are under the control of Bishamon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.11) in the North. In some Buddhist temples (see: jiin The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53) images of them are used as guardian figures.
Anime and Manga:
The name of the title character in Inu-yasha identifies him as a yasha.
Anime:
"I am the Yasha of the Six Beings" is said by Takaya during an exorcism in Mirage of Blaze (ep.3).
Manga:
In GTO The Early Years (v.6 chapter 92) we see a girl who goes by the name of Yasha and has a han'nya tattoo on her shoulder.
Sources:
Illustrated Must-See in Nikko p.114
Inagaki, Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.361
yatai (outdoor stall) 屋台 OLD FORM 屋臺 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.147)
Sources:
Living Japanese Style p.104
yatate (portable Ink and brush kit) 矢立
A small portable writing set with ink and brush. Some consist of a container holding a small ink stick, a bowl for mixing ink with water and a brush. A common type was made of bamboo, wood or metal with a long hollow handle containing the brush and a small-lidded container attached to one end of the handle containing cotton soaked in ink. As some were made of metal they could be used as an improvised weapon. Yatate could be attached by simply sliding it by the stem into an obi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.98) for easy access, for example this was useful for shop clerks to quickly write down orders. The name actually means 'arrow bag' and at one time actual arrow bags would also commonly hold other items such as writing equipment.
Anime:
Goemon uses a yatate in Lupin The 3rd: Thieves Paradise (ep."Hell Toupee")
Yukiatsu pulls a yatate from inside his kimono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68) in Ghost Slayers Ayashi (ep.9) and uses it to mark on a map.
Manga:
In Path of the Assassin (v.11 p.114) we see Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) asks Hattori Hanzō for a yatate.
We see a yatate during a meeting with a member of the Yagyu family (see: Yagyūshi (Yagyū family)) when diagrams are drawn on paper in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.5 p.10).
In Kaze Hikaru (v.7 p.10-11) Sei forgets a yatate and has to go back for it.
Sources:
Joya Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.56
Mol, Serge. Classical Weaponry of Japan p.90
Perez, Louis G. Daily Life in Early modern Japan p.94
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.201
yatsuhashi 八ツ橋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)
Sources:
Must See In Kyōto p.160
Yazawa Eikichi 矢沢永吉
Founder of the early 1970s rock band Carol that gained great popularity with bōsōzoku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.14), yankī (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) and other delinquent youth. In 1975 Yazawa went solo with his first album I Love You OK and the band broke up. In 1978 he published an autobiography Nariagari (Upstart) where he discussed his rough youth without parents, moving from band to band, the success of Carol and his move to being a solo performer. His music has high production values, ranges from slow and soulful to raucous and upbeat, several of his songs are sung in English. He occasionally does US tours and judging from the commercials and video clips I have seen is quite a showman.
Manga:
On the first page of chapter 3 in GTO The Early Years (v.1) we see that Onizuka's favorite music includes: "Yokohama Ginbae, Eikichi Yazawa, Carol .. other punked out biker bands"
Sources:
Sato, Ikuya. Kamikaze Biker: Parody and Anomy in Affluent Japan p.98
Web Site:
Yazawa's Door

YEAR CROSSING NOODLES see: toshikoshi soba

YEARS END CLEANING see: susu-harai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.128)

YEAR END PARTY see: bōnen-kai ("forget the year party")

YELLOW CAB see: ierō kyabu (yellow cab)

YEN see: en (The Anime Companion 2 p.20)

YIN AND YANG, BUREAU OF see: Ommyōryō (Bureau of Yin and Yang)

YIN AND YANG, WAY OF see: Ommyōdō

YIN-YANG BLOCKS see: sangi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.111)

YIN YANG MASTER see: Ommyōji

yobai (night creeping) 夜這い
The custom of, usually, a man visiting a woman at night to have sex. In olden times this could even happen between married couples as it was not unusual for wives to continue to live with their parents. Such visits turn up in literary works like the Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji) and the Man'yōshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80). Originally the term came from the verb yobu, meaning to visit. Later it came to be written with the kanji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61) for night and crawl. In time the practice became seen as an immoral one. There is even a tradition of men covering their faces so that if they are rejected they can remain anonymous.
Anime:
Keiichi nervously approaches Belldandy's room and asks himself if what he is doing is not just another form of night creeping in the Ah! My Goddess TV series (ep.5)
In episode 56 of City Hunter 2 Ryo sneaks into Kaori's room, however not to see her but to peek at the woman next door.
Kumiko accuses Sawada of yobai when he sneaks into her room at the NHN Hotel in GokuSen (ep 8 ), her fellow teacher and hotel roommate Fujiyama sensei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.114) offers to leave for a few hours.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1748
yobikō (cram school) 予備校 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.147)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.253
yobi-komi (barker) 呼び込み
Hawkers or barkers who stand outside clubs, clap their hands and use a cheerful voice while trying to lure in customers.
Anime:
Yobi-komi are heard as Shinji walks on the street in episode four of Neon Genesis Evangelion.
Manga:
Godai scores a job as a yobi-komi for a kyaba kura in Maison Ikkoku (vol. 11 p. 196, 2nd edition v.12 p.90)
Sources:
Illustrated Japanese Family & Culture p.145

YŌKAI see also:
bakemono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.8)
Topical Index entry for Religion/Mythology/Belief - Supernatural Beings/Yōkai

yōkai 妖怪
Another term for bakemono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.8), that is for all sorts of supernatural creatures. Today yōkai is more commonly used than bakemono for academic writing and in common speech. The term goes back to the mid Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) where it was used by writers such as Toriyama Sekien however it was in the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) that the scholar Inoue Enryō popularized it with his creation of yōkaigaku, or yōkai-ology.
Anime:
Yōkai is translated as "demons" in episode two of InuYasha.
Manga:
Ren in Kon Kon Kokon is a yōkai otaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.103), something he hides so as to not appear uncool.
Sources:
Foster, Michael Dylan. Morphologies of Mystery p.7
yōkan ようかん or 羊羹 (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi World Food Japan p.277
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.174
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.303

YOKE OF AN EGG IN SAKE see: tamago-zake (The Anime Companion 2 p.97)

Yokohama 横浜 OLD FORM 橫濱 (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1750
Papinot, E. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan p.753
Web site:
City of Yokohama (official site)
Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau

YOKOHAMA BAY BRIDGE see: Yokohama Bei Buriji (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)

Yokohama Bei Buriji (Yokohama Bay Bridge) 横浜ベイブリッジ (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.121, 1750
Yokohama Ginbae 横浜銀蝿
A rock band founded in 1980 that appealed to yankī (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146), rebellious youth and bōsōzoku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.14). Their look includes baggy white pants, curly permed hair and wide collared black leather jackets. Several of their songs incorporate motorcycle exhaust sounds. Their popularity even led to Prime Minister (see: shushō) Nakasone inviting them to a party in 1983 as a publicity gimmick.
Manga:
On the first page of chapter 3 in GTO The Early Years (v.1) we see that Onizuka's favorite music includes: "Yokohama Ginbae, Eikichi Yazawa, Carol .. other punked out biker bands"
Sources:
Sato Ikuya. Kamikaze Biker: Parody and Anomy in Affluent Japan p.98

YOKOME see: metsuke (inspector, censor)

Yokosuka 横須賀 [市] OLD FORM 橫須賀 (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 528
Frederic, Louis. Japan Encyclopedia p. 1056
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1752
Web site:
Official English web page.
Yokota Air Base 横田空軍基地 (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1659
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.82, 85,86
Web Sites:
Yokota Air Base
Yomi (Land of Gloom) 黄泉
Also referred to as Yomi-no-kuni. In ancient Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) texts such as the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) and Nihon Shoki (Chronicle of Japan) this is the land of the dead, the source of destruction, pollution, unhappiness and inhabited by evil spirits known as magatsuhi no kami.
Manga:
In a dramatic moment in the first volume of Lone Wolf and Cub (p.271) Ōgami Ittō gives his son a choice which could lead him to join his mother in Yomi.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.75
Bocking, Brian. Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.225

YOMI-NO-KUNI see: Yomi (Land of Gloom)

Yomiuri Land よみうりランド
An amusement park in the Tama-ku area of Kawasaki. This complex was built in the 1960s by the Yomiuri Shimbun Newspaper Company. Along with rides there is also a zoo and marine aquarium.
Anime:
In City Hunter: The Motion Picture, this is where Ryo has his first face to face encounter with the Professor.
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p.529
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas 69 H-4
Yomiuri Shimbun 読売新聞
Japan's largest daily newspaper (see: shinbun; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.119). Founded, with offices in the Ginza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35), by the Nisshūsha newspaper company in 1874, during the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81), as a daily. By the late 19th century it had a reputation for publishing works by literary authors. Former policeman Shōriki Matsutarō became manager in February 1924, during the late Taishō Period (see: Taishō jidai; The Anime Companion 2 p.95), and he made many innovative changes that drew more readers. Among these were radio program listings, a women's page and an advice column. Under the guidance of Matsutarō the paper grew to the largest in the city. The Yomiuri survived the war years to continue to grow, expanding operations to become a nationwide publication. By 1991 it was the largest newspaper in the world.
Anime:
Cat's Eye season one (ep.21) the chief is reading the "Yomiuri Simbun" on the train.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1753
Seidensticker, Edward. Low City, High City p.261
Seidensticker, Edward. Tokyo Rising p.16
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.96
Web Site:
The Daily Yomiuri online
yōmyō (male child’s name) 幼名 (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)
Source:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1046
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.668
yopparai (a drunk) 酔っ払い OLD FORM 醉つ拂ひ (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.148)
Sources:
Discover Japan v.2 p.96
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.39
yoriki (assistant magistrate) 与力
This term literally means "strength that is offered", often translated as helper or assistant, and referred to bushi (The Anime Companion 2 p.11) who assisted others of higher rank. In the Muromachi Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90) it was used to refer to those who served daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) or samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) commanders of high rank such as horse mounted officers who commanded other samurai or ashigaru (The Anime Companion 2 p.6). They also handled various administrative positions granted to them by appointment and chosen from the hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) or gokenin. During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) also used the term to refer to assistant magistrates who supervised patrol and guard units composed of dōshin. In Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) each of the Edo machi bugyō had 25 such yoriki, referred to as machi-kata yoriki, to assist them, almost all of these were gokenin. Most of the yoriki who handled police duties would have inherited their post from their fathers which gave them considerable information concerning the community they worked in.
Manga:
In volume 2 of Samurai Executioner (p.255) that the okappiki served under the yoriki and doshin is mentioned.
In Blade of the Immortal volume 18 [ch."The Sparrow Net part 3") Dōa, Isaku and Rin are confronted by a group of yoriki and dōshin as they stand among suspiciously fresh bodies.
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.42-45
Dunn, Charles J. Everyday Life in Traditional Japan p.29
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1754
Nishiyama Matsunosuke. Edo Culture p.279
yorishiro 依代
A container or vehicle for a spirit or kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59). Many kinds of objects are used for this such as gohei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36), living things such as trees, even specific sites. When kami are involved these objects function as shintai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121).
Manga:
In Ghost Hunt (v.2 p.135) Naru explains to Mai how a hitogata can function like a yorishiro for the spirit of a living person.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shintō (revised edition) p.75
Kornicki, P.F. and I. J. McMullen (eds). Religion in Japan: Arrows to Heaven and Earth p.291, 292, 295

YORK SEVEN see: Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd.

yōshi (adoption) 養子 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.148)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.8

YOSHIDA MASAAKI see: Yoshida Tōyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)

Yoshida Shōin 吉田松蔭 (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)
Source:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1758
Yoshida Tōyō 吉田東洋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1758
Jansen, Marius B. Sakamoto Ryōma and the Meiji Restoration p.119
Image of Yoshida Toyo

YOSHIDO see: yoshizu (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)

Yoshikawa Eiji 吉川英治 (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1758-1759
Weisser, Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser. Japanese Cinema: Essential Handbook p.217

YOSHIMURA FUYUHIKO see: Terada Torahiko

YOSHINOBU see: Tokugawa Yoshinobu (The Anime Companion 2 p.104)

Yoshinoya 吉野家 (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)
Source:
Express FCI - TV news show November 6, 2000
Web Site:
Yoshinoya USA

YOSHITSUNE see, Minamoto no Yoshitsune (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)

Yoshiwara 吉原
The famous "licensed quarter" of Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18), later of Tokyo (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). This was the only area where prostitution could legally be carried out in the city. Business was not all sexual, from 1617 to when prostitution was outlawed in 1957, Yoshiwara provided a large range of other entertainments and played a major role in the arts including literature and inspiring many prints. As festivities could also include music and dance, geisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33) also worked in the Yoshiwara adding a respectable elegance to parties. Yoshiwara originally meant 'reed plain' as the land where it was built had been marshy before it was filled in. In time the Chinese character for reed was replaced with another, also pronounced yoshi, that meant auspicious. In 1657 the original area was destroyed during the Meireki fire, at that time it was decided to move the licensed quarter to a place afterwards called Shin Yoshiwara. The new location was organized on a grid of streets covering about 20 acres surrounded by walls and a moat. Willows (yanagi, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146), associated with prostitution in Chinese literature, were planted on the streets and near the ōmon. The ōmon, the Great Gate, was the only way to enter and leave the area and prevented customers from leaving without paying and prostitutes from escaping. Most of the prostitutes were indentured to work for a period of time, commonly 10 years. Often money had been paid to impoverished parents. It was possible to buy the freedom of a prostitute and there are kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) plays that involve young men attempting to come up with the money to do so, or tragically failing. It is estimated that the average number of prostitutes was between 2 and 3 thousand, not all of whom were women. A famous book which is available on the Yoshiwara is The Nightless City by J. E. de Becker.
Anime:
Growing Up (Takekurabe) is the story of children growing up in the Yoshiwara.
Manga:
The first story in Lady Snowblood (v.1 p.3-) takes place in Yoshiwara.
Yumi in Rurouni Kenshin had once been an oiran in Shin Yoshiwara (Rurouni Kenshin v.17 p.185)
Sources:
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.166
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1762
de Becker, J. E. Nightless City

YOSHIWARA DIALECT see: kuruwa kotoba

YOSHIWARA MOAT/DITCH see: Ohaguro-dobu (Ditch of Black Teeth)

yoshizu (reed screen) 葭簀 (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)
Sources:
Bornoff, Nicholas and Michael Freeman. Things Japanese p,16
Morse, Edward S. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings p. 356)
Yotsuya 四谷 (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)
Sources:
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.11
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then: An Explorer's Guide p.55-58

YOTSUYA GHOST STORIES see: Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (Ghost Story of Tōkaidō Yotsuya)

YOTSUYA KAIDAN see: Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (Ghost Story of Tōkaidō Yotsuya)

YOUNG ELDER see: wakadoshiyori (junior councilors, young elders)

YOUNG FEMALE PAGES see: kamuro (young female pages or attendants)

YOUNG LADY see: ojōsan (young lady)

YOUNG MAN see seinen

yuba (soybean curd skin) 湯葉
A soybean product made by boiling soymilk and skimming the curd off the top. Extremely nutritious it is commonly used in Japanese vegetarian cooking (see: shōjin ryōri, The Anime Companion 2 p.87) and Buddhist funeral cuisine. It is also used in soups, nimono, by itself with a sauce and as a wrapping for other foods such as cucumber (see: kyūri, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78) and burdock (see: gobō, The Anime Companion 2 p.23) or a replacement for nori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.97) in makizushi. Most of the yuba consumed in Japan is made in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77), both Kyōto and Nikko are known for producing good quality yuba. Fresh yuba is called nama-yuba (raw yuba) as yuba is commonly dried to preserve it.
Manga:
In chapter 142 of Iron Wok Jan! the challenge is tōfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.100) related dishes and yuba is one of the ingredients provided (v.16 p.112).
In Ohikkoshi (p.235) I-Ue refers to "yuba-eating" as they get ready for a tour of Kyōto.
Home made yuba is part of a meal in Oishinbo A la Carte: Sake (p.250, 270), the original Japanese text has the term nama-yuba.
In Oishinbo A la Carte: Izakaya: Pub Food (p.63 - 74) yuba is the base for a variety of experimental dishes in both Japanese and European styles.
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.35, 115
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.175
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.57, 148
Illustrated Must See In Nikko p.128
yubikiri (pinky promise) 指切り
A pinky promise, a promise made in which pinky fingers are hooked together. It is usually children or an adult and child who do this.
Anime and Manga:
Ayami and Mai makes such a promise in Ghost Hunt (ep.6, v.2 p. 139).
In Peace Maker Tetsu promises Saya he will never kill even if he has to draw a sword (ep.24, v.5 ch.29).
Anime:
A pinky promise is made between Ten and Kotori in Urusei Yatsura (ep. 114 story 137).
Akito and Masahiro make this kind of promise to see the fireflies the next summer in Shonen Onmyouji (ep. 10).
Sources:
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.202

YUDA-SHŪ ("MYSTIC UNITY SECT") see: Shingonshū (Shingon sect of Buddhism)

Yui Shōsetsu 由井正雪
(1605-51) Yui Shōsetsu was a teacher of military science. Originally from the province of Suruga, he studied under the famous tactician Kusunoki Fuden. Shōsetsu's school in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) was successful with several daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) and hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) coming to listen to his lessons. One story regarding Shōsetsu's skill is in a bout with swords (see: nihontō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.95) between him and Sekiguchi Hayato. In this bout Shōsetsu had without anyone noticing pinned Hayato's hakama (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.38) to the floor with his kogai (sword "pin-blade"). After the death of Tokugawa Iemitsu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) at the age of 47 and the ascession of Tokugawa Ietsuna at the age of 10 Shōsetsu formed an organization of rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106). In alliance with Marubashi Chūya he plotted a coup to take place in the summer of 1651. When the plot was discovered Shōsetsu killed himself leaving behind a note that he did not intend to overthrow the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) but to only point out the plight of ronin.
Anime:
In the 2nd episode of Ninja Resurrection the Shōsetsu Yui residence in Edo is the gathering place of most unusual conspirators.
Manga:
In Ōoku "v.4 p.68" we hear that plot included setting fire to Edo, stealing the war chest of Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) at Kunōzan, and capturing Sunpu Castle.
Sources:
Dening, Walter. Japan in Days of Yore p.585
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1765
Mol, Serge. Classical Weaponry of Japan p.32
Naito Akira. Edo: The City That Became Tokyo p.99
Nakai, Kate Wildman. Shogunal Politics p.87-88
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.353

YUI SHŌSETSU DISTURBANCE see: Keian Jiken

yuinō (betrothal gift) 結納 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.149)
Sources:
Outlook on Japan p.78
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1764
yukata (lightweight kimono) 浴衣 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.149)
Sources:
Outlook on Japan p.37
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia 1765

YUKI JORŌ see: yuki onna (snow woman) (The Anime Companion 2 p.120)

yuki onna (snow woman) 雪女 (The Anime Companion 2 p.120)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1765
yukimi (snow viewing) 雪見
Enjoying the sight of a snow covered landscape while drinking sake (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109). Gatherings to enjoy this pastime are found in accounts as far back as the Nara Period, in the Heian Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44) this was an aristocratic pleasure with the emperors going on excursions to enjoy looking at the snow. By the start of the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the custom spread to the commoners. In the city of Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) the banks of the Sumidagawa (The Anime Companion 2 p.93) were popular for yukimi, later in the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) Yasukuni Shrine also became a popular place.
Anime:
Snow viewing and drinking are enjoyed by Yuko in the xxxHOLiC TV series (ep. 19).
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1436
Seidensticker, Edward. Low City, High City p.127

YUMINARASHI see: meigen (resounding bowstrings)

yūrei (ghost) 幽霊 OLD FORM 幽靈 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.149)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.454, 1002
yuri (lily) 百合
The lily, the term yuri is used mainly for plants from the family Liliaceae. There are some fifteen wild species of Liliaceae found in Japan. Several of these have been cultivated for their edible bulb or as ornamentals for gardens producing a large number of varieties. Also many nonnative lilies have been introduced into japan for gardening.
The major wild lilies of Japan are the:
yamayuri also called the yoshinoyuri (lilium auratum)
sakuyuri (lilium platyphyllum)
teppōyuri (lilium longiflorum)
himesayuri also called the otomeyuri (lilium rubellum)
sasayuri (lilium japonicum)
oniyuri (lilium lancifolium)
kooniyuri (Lilium leichtliuli var tigrinum)
kanokoyuri (lilium speciosum)
sukashiyuri (lilium maculatum)
kurumayuri (lilium medeoloides)
ubayuri (Lilium cordatum)
Some nonnative lilies that grow wild include:
takasagoyuri also called the hosobateppoyuri and Formosa lily (Lilium formosanum)
Plants not in the family Liliaceae but called yuri include:
chigoyuri (Disporum smilacium)
Note: In English the term lily is applied to many plants not in the family Liliaceae and which are not called yuri in Japan.
Manga:
Natsume Sōseki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.91) uses "the lilies of May 5th" as a metaphor while conversing with his friends in The Times of Botchan (v.1 p. 46).
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.892
Levy, Ran. Wild Flowers of Japan, entries: 28, 31, 32, 90, 91, 128, 129
yuri (lesbian [slang]) 百合
The Japanese word for lily, yuri is sometimes used to refer to lesbians, at times as part of a phrase such as yuri-zoku (yuri group). The term yuri-zoku was coined by Ito Bongaku in 1971 in the gay men's magazine Barazoku. The term is more often used in print than in conversation where rezubian (The Anime Companion 2 p.73) is more likely to be used. Yuri is also used for a genre of lesbian tales including manga and anime, this usage covers works for a both lesbian and straight audience. Some yuri themed anthology manga magazines include the no longer published Yuri Shimai (Lily Sisters) which ran from 2003-2005 and included non-lesbian material as well as the all yuri Yuri Hime (Lily Princess) which has about a 30% male readership.
Anime and Manga:
Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl is an example of a yuri themed work.
Sources:
Connell, Ryann "Lesbian Manga and the Art of Gilding the Lily." Mainichi Daily News, February 26, 2008.
http://mdn.mainichi.jp/culture/waiwai/news/20080226p2g00m0dm011000c.html
[link no longer active, accessed Feb 26, 2008]
Long, Daniel "Formation Processes of Some Japanese Gay Argot Terms." American Speech, Vol. 71, No. 2, (Summer, 1996), pp. 221
McLelland, Mark "Local meanings in global space: a case study of women's 'Boy love' web sites in Japanese and English." Motes Pluriels No. 19. October 2001. p. 19
http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1901mcl.html
Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide p.406-407

YŪRIGŌ see: kuruwa kotoba

YŪRIKOTOBA see: kuruwa kotoba

YUSHIMA CONFUCIAN SHRINE see: Shōheikō

YUSHIMA SEIDŌ see: Shōheikō

yuwakashiki (wall-mounted water heater) 湯沸かし器 (The Anime Companion 2 p.120)
Source:
Japan: At a Glance p.62

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Created: October 31, 1998

Updated: September 30, 2012