This term literally translated as 'one who raises land prices', usually it is translated as 'land shark' or 'land grabber'. This is a specialty of some yakuza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) who do this work on hire for developers or the agents of developers. What they do is harass owners of property into selling or pressuring tenants into moving so the owner can sell the land. Japanese law is very protective of the rights of tenants making eviction very difficult. Usually this process, called jiage, involves consolidating small tracts making the larger total more valuable. This activity goes back as far as the 19th century and was particularly bad in the boom years of the 1980s when many large development projects needed adjacent small tracts to be consolidated and the activity was highly profitable. Methods range from simple intimidation to assault, destruction of property, kidnaping, arson and other extreme measures. In one case a dump truck was rammed into a family business. Some groups have even operated overseas such as in San Francisco in the 1990s. Anime:
In City Hunter (ep.37) the owner of a small tavern (izakayaThe Anime Companion 2 p.33), who also owns the land it is on, is pressured by jiageya to sell it, and in another episode, City Hunter 2 (ep.7), the owner of an island full of rare species is also being pressured to sell.
In R.O.D The TV (ep.17) a bookseller mentions that Jimbōchō never gave into land sharks, politicians or the war.
Hill, Peter B.E. The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State p.52, 121-122
Kaplan, David E. and Alec Dubro. Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld 178-180
jidaigeki (period films) 時代劇
Period films. Specifically films set in pre-modern Japan. The Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) is the most popular setting for these movies. Jidaigeki set in the Edo Period or the earlier Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) are often called 'samurai films' in the West even when they do not have samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) in them. Some of Japan's most famous directors have worked on such films and they continue to be a popular form of entertainment. Anime:
Ryoko says she was fantasizing that while she was looking at the garden she was a character in a jidaigeki, translated as samurai drama, in Real Bout High School (ep.4).
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.679
jidō-hanbaiki (vending machine) 自動販売機 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53)
Draeger, Donn F. Modern Bujutsu & Budo p.24-25, 79
Frederic, Louis. Dictionary of the Martial Arts p.62
Skoss, Diane, ed. Keiko Shokon: Classical Warrior Traditions of Japan volume 3 p. 165
jiin (Buddhist temple) 寺院 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1547, 1387
jikisan (direct vassal) 直参
A direct vassal serving his master. Examples included hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) and gokenin. In the hierarchical system of the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) they had a higher status than baishin who were the vassals of vassals. Manga:
That the Habaki clan has been jikisan of the Tokugawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) since since they were in Mikawa is mentioned by a very irate wife in Blade of the Immortal (v.22 ch."Night Chrysanthemum").
Yagyū Retsudō is warned by Abe Tanoshi that the jikisan hatamoto and the daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) are plotting against him in Lone Wolf and Cub (v. 20 p.35) in volume 28 (p.152) they side with him as he has regained the shogun's favor.
That Yamada Asaemon is actually a rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) rather than a jikisan is mentioned in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.30) and in volume 4 (p.30) he is asked about the bushidō (The Anime Companion 2 p.11) of a ronin by some jikisan he has met. Sources:
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.287
jikoku-hyō (timetable) 時刻表
Timetables. The most common forms are for trains and are published monthly. The first timetables were single sheets in 1872 for the Shimbashi to Yokohama (The Anime Companion 2 p.117) railway line. In a few years enough train lines had been built to require booklet and bound schedules. The first Japanese language monthly timetable was the Train & Steamer Travel Guide (Kisha Kisen Ryokō Annai), published in 1894. In the late 19th century some hotels with foreign visitors and the Welcome Society began publishing their own timetables in English, which while not as comprehensive as the Japanese schedules could at least be read by most foreigners.
In 1910 the government railways began publishing a schedule with Arabic numbers rather than the kanji of the older timetables as well as notes in English to assist use by non-Japanese. The early government issued timetables were mainly for internal use but in time timetables printed for sale became available. With the establishment of the Japan Tourist Bureau in 1912 there began to be larger timetables being published monthly in Japan The monthly JTB Timetable began in 1925 and continues to be published today, under the title of Kōtsū Kōsha no Jikoku-hyō. Timetables of the inter-war period also included Manchuria, Korea and Taiwan, those nations being colonies of Japan at the time. The December 1931 English language Condensed Time Tables on Principal Lines was a full 236 pages with advertisements.
After WWII the Japan Travel Bureau published a 200 page timetable in September 1945, however due to paper shortages the later regular publications for some time were about 16 pages covering Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) and adjacent areas. In 1987 the JR (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53) companies decided to publish their own monthly unified timetable rather than rely on the JTB. Today both the JR and JTB schedules are published monthly covering all of Japan and some smaller companies publish separate timetables for their areas. Besides travelers the other major markets for timetables have been businesses wanting to schedule staff travel and hobbyists interested in railroads and train photography. While electronic timetables now exist they are often not as easy to use as printed schedules so both formats co-exist. Manga:
In GTO (v.20 p.108) Noboru figures out the young hikikomori Yuuki goes out on the 15th and 20th of every month to get the train schedules. Kikuchi notes that the JR and JTB schedules come out on the 20th and the Daiya comes out on the 15th. Sources:
Demery, Leroy W. Jr et al. Japan by Rail p.28.
Soga Yoshiki "The Story of Foreign Language Timetables in Japan" JRTR Japan Railway & Transport Review No. 53 Sep 2009 p.6-17.
Kawai Momoko "The Tale of One Thousand Timetable Issues" JRTR Japan Railway & Transport Review No. 53 Sep 2009 p.24-29.
JIMBEN DAI BOSATSU see: En no Gyōja (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.28)
Located in the Kanda area of Chiyoda-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.13) in Tokyo (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). The neighborhood is famous for the bookshops which began opening in the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81), the area was destroyed in the great 1923 earthquake (Kantō DaisinsaiThe Anime Companion 2 p.41). This neighborhood is the largest collection of bookshops, new and used, in the world with over 100 secondhand dealers alone. Many stores specialize in specific subject areas including shops focussed on the tea ceremony (cha-no-yuThe Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17), ukiyo-e, architecture, kabuki and other topics. Anime:
Jimbōchō is seen in the first episode of Read or Die and in many of the episodes of the R.O.D The TV series. Manga:
In The Fist of the Blue Sky (v.1 p.30) Kasumi is reported to stand and read books in stores in Jimbocho rather than buy them. Natsumi Sōseki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.91) buys a books at Tokiodo in Jimbōchō in The Times of Botchan (v.2 p.97) Sources:
Enbutsu Sumiko. Old Tōkyō: Walks in the City of the Shōgun p.79
Seidensticker, Edward. Low City, High City p.214 Tokyo City Atlas 20 C4, 58 B3
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.72, 73
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then: An Explorer's Guide p.140-141
jinja (Shintō shrine) 神社 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54)
Sources: Outlook on Japan p.122 Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1422, 1387
jinrikisha (rickshaw) 人力車 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1263
JIS see: Nihon Kōgyō Kikaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.94)
jisha bugyō (commissioner of temples and shrines) 寺社奉行
The commissioner of temples and shrines. Antecedents for this position go back to the Kamakura Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) and Muromachi Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90) with bugyō assigned to supervise major temples (see: jiin, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53) and shrines (see: jinja, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54), including matters regarding religious hierarchies, lawsuits and landholdings. It was Tokugawa Iemitsu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) who established the jisha bugyō for the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25). These were chosen from four fudai daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.20) and rotated their duties monthly. They not only handled the supervision of the affairs of temples and shrine for all of Japan they also took care of the service staff of the shogun's household, handled judicial matters in hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) territories outside of the Kantō Chihō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61), supervised professional musicians, renga poets, and professional go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36) players. Manga:
In Samurai Executioner (v.2 p.184) Yamada Asaemon asks a daikan (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) to clear the execution of a captured rapist who had attacked a nun, if the daikan says no Asaemon says will inform the jisha bugyō.
Yunoshin is informed of a prospecting marriage to the daughter of Baron Miura of Hizen, a "Commissioner of Temples and Shrines" in Ōoku (v.1 p.27). Sources:
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.97, 99
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.103 Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.686
jizaikagi (pot hook) 自在鉤 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.55)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.688
Jizō 地蔵 OLD FORM 地藏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.55)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.688 A Look Into Japan p.33 Japanese Family and Culture p.166
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.17
JŌCHIN see: chōchin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.19)
jōdai (keeper of a castle) 城代
Starting in the 16th century trusted vassals were given charge of governing a lord's castle in his absence. The title given these was that of jōdai, also called jōdai garō. During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the term was also used for vassals in charge of certain castles controlled by the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8). Originally these were Nijō Castle, Sunpu Castle, Ōsaka Castle (see: Ōsakajō), and Fushimi Castle. Starting in 1699 only two jōdai bakufu ranks remained, the Sunpu jōdai, granted to high rank hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27), and Ōsaka jōdai, granted to middle rank fudai daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.20). Manga:
The daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) Imagawa Yoshimoto orders a conspiracy with the jōdai of Okazaki castle against Matsudaira Motonobu in Path of the Assassin (v.2 p.66).
In Lone Wolf and Cub (v.3 p.265) an assassination attempt against a jōdai turns into a trap. Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.689
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.288
A major sect of Pure Land Buddhism founded by Shinran (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) in the 13th century. When Shinran returned from exile in 1211 he found several of Hōnen's disciples teaching variants of Jōdoshū (Jōdo sect) 浄土宗 so Shinran worked to teach Hōnen's true version. While today it is usually called Shinshū in Japan in the past it was usually referred to as Ikkōshū, Montoshū or Honganji after it's main temple. Often the name is translated as True Pure Land Sect in English. Anime:
In Mirage of Blaze (ep.7) believers from the Ikkōshū are starting to act. Manga:
Azabuzan Zenpukuji Temple of the Shinshu Hoganji sect is said to have a hojicho in Lady Snowblood (v.2 p.32). Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.689.
Jōdoshū (Jōdo sect) 浄土宗
This major sect of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism was founded in the late 12th century by the bōzu (Buddhist priest or monk) Hōnen when he entered the city of Heiankyō to preach the central importance focusing on trust in Amida Buddha and the recitation of the nenbutsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.92) in venerating Amida as all one needed for salvation. In this he also rejected the necessity of the monastic life to attain enlightenment. These easy to understand requirements made his teaching attractive to many lay people. As he had established a new sect, the tenth by the traditional numbering of Buddhist sects, without permission from the authorities he was banned from the capital and exiled, several of his disciples were executed. Anime and Manga:
We find out that Tachibana Yuki was of the Jōdo sect in Ghost Hunt (ep.5, v.2 p.84 Ch. "Doll House File.2") Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.689
Miner, Earl; Odagiri Hiroko and Robert Morrell. The Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature p.374
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.316
A small Jōdo sect Buddhist temple (see: jiin, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53) located in northern Asakusa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5), in what is now the Minami-Senju 2 area of Arakawa-Ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.6) near the intersection of Nikko Kaido and Meiji-Dori, close to the Minowa subway station. This small temple is known as the place where the bodies of prostitutes from the nearby Yoshiwara were disposed. The temple records indicate an average age of 22 for those women whose bodies were brought wrapped in straw mats to the temple, the records list the names of over 21,000 women without families whose bodies taken to Jōkanji between 1743 and 1801. One of the reasons for the young age is that most prostitutes ended their terms of contract in their late 20s. Some of the temple records indicate death by double suicide (see: shinjū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.119) between the prostitute and a lover. Jōkanji is also known as Nagekomidera, (投込寺,) the Dump or Throw Away Temple, a nick name it shares with Jōkakuji in Shinjuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.120). Behind the temple hall is a memorial stone for the women. Anime:
In Ghost Slayers Ayashi (ep.15) Kiyohana refers to the "throw away temple" where the bodies of those who have no one to claim their remains are taken with 200 mon for burial expenses. Manga:
A policeman refers to the "Jōkan paupers temple" while investigating the suspicious death of a prostitute in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.2 p.253). Sources: Bilingual Atlas of Tokyo: Covering All 23 Wards 20 B2. English Walking Guide to Old Edo-Historical Sights in Modern Tokyo p.114.
Seigle, Cecilia Segawa. Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan p.195, 212, 265 n.50.
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then: An Explorer's Guide p.210-11, 429.
An Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) police rank for a type of officer who openly patrolled an area. These were usually recruited from the ranks of dōshin (lower-grade samurai rank) samurai. Manga:
A jōmawari in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.227) is Sakane Kasajirō, who uses a kaginawa (hook rope) and is a practitioner of taiho-jutsu (arresting arts). Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.45
JŌSHI NO SEKKU see: Hina Matsuri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.45)
JŌSHI see: shinjū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.119)
JOURNEY TO THE WEST see: Saiyūki (The Anime Companion 2 p.75)
joya no kane 除夜の鐘 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.55)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.77 Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.696
jūbako (stacking boxes) 重箱 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.696
JUBEI see: Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi (The Anime Companion 2 p.113)
jūdō 柔道 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.509 Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.697
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.60
Parker, L. Craig. The Japanese Police System Today p.69
The Eleven Faced Kannon, which actually has twelve faces if you count the head. There is the head and then, usually on the crown, eleven small faces representing different incarnations of Buddha each related to one of the eleven desires to be conquered to attain bhodi. These heads may be arranged in several ways. Some have the small heads in three rows of three with one in the back and one on the top, others have the heads grouped into five, four and one with another in front, a rare form has ten heads surrounding an eleventh. A scarce form exists with only nine heads. The small faces are arranged by groups, such as wrathful on the three left faces, on the right calm with fangs and on the front serene faces. The head at the front or top represents Amida. If there is a head on the back it is smilling or laughing and represents karma. Jūichimen Kannon Bosatsu is often depicted sitting cross legged on a lotus and with more than two arms. Anime:
In Sword of the Stranger there is a sequence early in the film where we see a headless multi armed seated statue in a neglected Buddhist temple, later we get a close up of the head of Jūichimen Kannon Bosatsu on the floor.
Frederic, Louis. Buddhism: Flammarion Iconographic Guides p.163-164
Matsunami Kodo. Essentials of Buddhist Images p.57
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.316
jūjutsu 柔術 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.697
Frederic, Louis. Dictionary of the Martial Arts p.86
juku (private tutoring schools) 塾
Private tutoring schools. During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the term referred to private schools teaching special skills, such as martial arts, or philosophy. It was during the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) that the term began to mean private tutoring schools teaching specific subjects. Today the term often refers to schools teaching arts, sports or the academic subjects needed for entrance exams. Juku compete with yobikō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.147) for students who are working towards passing entrance exams. There are also juku that specialize in helping students maintain their regular studies. Anime:
In the You're Under Arrest (ep.18) and Kimagure Orange Road TV series (ep.37 ) juku are mentioned. Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p,698
Jukyō (Confucianism) 儒教 OLD FORM 儒敎 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56)
Sources: Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.222 Martial Arts & Sports in Japan p.14-15
Juliana's Tokyo ジュリアナ東京
Perhaps the most famous disco in Japanese history. Juliana's was located in a converted warehouse in Shibaura Tamachi with room for three thousand patrons. The club opened in May 1991 as a joint venture of the British firm Wembly PLC and Nisshō Iwai Corporation with a goal of providing better service than other clubs for a wealthier clientele. One popular feature was raised platforms, called otachi-dai, where young women customers in miniskirt bodikon outfits would dance, often with a feathered fan which became almost a symbol of the club. Some of the young women, such as Kumiko Araki, became celebrities appearing on TV and giving lessons. There was even a doll on the market in the form of the girls. However after complaints from the neighbors of rowdiness, girls changing into their outfits in alleys and magazine reports with photos showing plenty of flesh the police stepped in. In November 1993 the police made the club restrict access to those wearing less revealing clothing and only allowing professional dancers on the stages. Customers stopped coming, at the height of the club's popularity they had 5,000 a night and the number dropped to about 250. In August 1994 the club closed after an unrestrained eight day celebration attended by about 40,000. On Saturday September 6, 2008 the record label Avex Entertainment organized a celebration in honor of Juliana's in the Differ Ariake martial arts stadium of Kōtō-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.50) Tokyo. Anime and Manga:
In lesson 33 of volume 5 of GTO: Great Teacher Onizuka Eikichi assembles a sculpture of a dancer from Juliana's, the TOKYOPOP translation of the manga has him saying 'disco bunny' whereas in the original Japanese he says 'Juliana jo' which is also what he says in episode 10 of the anime. Manga:
In GTO The Early Years (v.7 ch.116) Shinomi says "wait'll the boys at Juliana see me" referring to her new tan. Sources:
Matsutani Minoru. "One-Night Stand Set For Hot '90s Go-Go Club." The Japan Times Sept. 4, 2008.
Schilling, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Japanese Pop Culture p. 76-78.
Yoshida Reiji. "Juliana's Revival Draws Thousands." The Japan Times Sept. 7, 2008.