Anime Companion Supplement - G

Ga - Ge - Gi - Go - Gr - Gu -

This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2.

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See the regular entry pages for cross references between variant terms, differing spellings, English to Japanese terms and names:
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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
3. Japanese characters for entries
4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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For more information about this supplement see The Anime Companion Supplement main page. Additions are announced in the Anime Companion Supplement News page and in my Blog.

Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations

gaijin (foreigner) 外人 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33)
Discover Japan v.1 p.158
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.397
gairaigo (loanword) 外来語 OLD FORM 外來語 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.897
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.96

GAJOEN see: Meguro Gajoen

gaki (hungry ghost) 餓鬼
A hungry ghost, the Sanskrit is preta. One of the possible rebirths in Buddhism (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) and a state of constant suffering from hunger and thirst. Gaki are depicted with emaciated bodies, a large stomach and narrow neck, tradition says when they try to eat the food catches on fire when they place it in their mouth. As gaki are perpetually hungry the term became applied to annoying children and in that context is often translated as brat.
Anime and Manga:
Takahashi Rumiko's unusual vision of hungry ghosts plays a major role in the Laughing Target anime and manga story (Rumic World p.105, Rumic World Trilogy v.1 p.179).
Gaki, translated as brat, is used by Yukari-sensei to describe Chiyo in Azumanga Daioh (ep.1).
In Dororo (v.1 p.249) Hyakkimaru tells Dorodo that to the spirits in the area they are in Dororo is is like a hungry ghost.
Stevenson, John. Yoshitoshi's Strange Tales p.10
Tanabe, George J. Jr (ed). Religions of Japan in Practice 160-161
Gakutensoku 学天則
Japan's first robot. Created in 1928 by the scientist Nishimura Makoto. It was designed to be human like, even with facial expressions and arms that could move. The face was designed to be a mixture of several races rather than just Japanese.
In Doomed Megalopolis (ep.3) Gakutensoku is used to combat Kato's opposition to the building of the Ginza subway line.
Bolton, Christopher, Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr, and Takayuki Tatsumi editors. Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams p.7

GAL see: gyaru (gal)

gama no abura (toad oil) 蝦蟇の油 (The Anime Companion 2 p.22)
Frederic, Louis. Daily Life in Japan p.140
Kurosawa Akira. Something Like an Autobiography xi

GAMES AND SPORTS see the entries listed under ENTERTAINMENT/GAME in the subject index.

GAN-GAKE see: inori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.49)

GANGSTERS see: yakuza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)

ganguro (black face) ガングロ or 顔黒
Black face is a literal translation of this term which seems to have been coined by those who did not care for the style. Originating around 1998-1999 as a gyaru (gal) fashion involving a dark tan combined with a bleached big hair style, colorful clothing, accessories as well as pale shiny lipstick and liberally applied eye shadow. Since tanning damages skin tanning salons were abandoned in favor of dark foundation makeup. The extreme forms of this style became known as gonguro (mega-black) and yamamba, a term commonly translated as mountain witch, sometimes shortened as manba. A later term is ogals, the o in this term referring to unclean. Guys who hung around the same places also started darkening their faces. Because of their dark skin and light eye makeup they are sometimes compared to pandas or teddy bears.
Anime and Manga:
In Gals, starting almost right away in volume one, and Super Gals (ep.1) Ran Kotobuki has an ongoing conflict with a trio of black faced girls who hang out in Shibuya-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.82)
Miller, Laura & Jan Bardsley (eds) Bad Girls of Japan p,143-
Macias, Patrick and Izumi Evers. Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno 58-85
Richie, Donald. The Image Factory p.158

GARDEN DECORATION BAMBOO PIPE MOVING UP AND DOWN see: shishiodoshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.122)

GARDEN GUARD see: niwaban (The Anime Companion 2 p.63)

GARNISH LEAF see: shiso (beefsteak plant)

GATE PINE see: kadomatsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.58)

GATES see: torii (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.139)

GAY BAR see: gei bā (gay bar)

Gazu hyakkiyagyō (Illustrated night procession of 100 demons) 画図百鬼夜行
A small illustrated book encyclopedia of 52 different yōkai by Toriyama Sekien published in 1776 and bound in the fukuro-toji format. Gazu hyakkiyagyo is the title of the first volume in a series of four and is often used to refer to the entire series. The other volumes in the popular Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) series are Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki (1779), Konjaku Hyakki Shūi (1781), and the Gazu Hyakki Tsurezure Bukuro (1784). Sekien was influenced by many sources including The Chinese text Sengaikyō (Shanhaijing), the Wakan sansaizue and various picture scrolls depicting hyakki yagyō. Each yōkai in the book has an illustration and caption, later books in the series would include an explanation of each yōkai. In the later volumes word play is common and some of the yōkai were invented by Sekien as visual puns for his word play. The title of the book can also be read as Gazu hyakkiyakō.
"Like that artist from the Edo Period painted The Gazu Monster Procession" said by Doumeki as he and Watanuki look at the hyakki yagyō procession in xxxHOLiC (TV ep.18 "Ground Cherry").
Foster, Michael Dylan. Pandemonium and Parade p.55-66

GAZU HYAKKIYAKŌ see: Gazu hyakkiyagyō (Illustrated night procession of 100 demons)

GECKO, GRILLED see: Imori no kuroyaki (charred newt)

gei bā (gay bar) ゲイバー
The gay bar scene in Japan is mainly a post W.W.II phenomenon, before the war there were some inns and cafes frequented by men who prefered men but no bar scene seems to be recorded as existing. In the post war period two types bars existed that were called "gei bā" one where the hostesses (see: hosutesu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47) are cross dressing men, often for straight customers, the other type is simply bars for gay men. In the early post war period Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) had only a few bars for men who prefer/like men, mainly in the Ginza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35), Shinjuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.120) and Asakusa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5), and many of these were usually linked with male prostitution. From these postwar bars evolved the contemporary bars for socializing between men. Over time the numbers grew and by the year 2000 there were over 200 gay and lesbian bars in Shinjuku, mainly in the famous location for such bars the ni-chome district. For the past decade reports have been that Shinjuku ni-chome has been in decline and Shinbashi has been gaining more bars. The use of the English term, and the related "gay shop", seems to have been introduced by US servicemen to Japan in the 1950s along with the term "gei" (gay).
City Hunter 2 (ep.22) Ryo pretends to work, dressed as a woman, at the Gay Bar Eroica in Shinjuku as a ruse.
In Tokyo Godfathers Hana returns to a place of former employment, the bar Angel Tower.
As is no surprise some Boys Love manga has scenes in gay bars such as Breath (v.1), Dining Bar Akira, and Your Honest Deceit.
Matsubara Hiroshi. "2-chome loses monopoly on gays but still draws crowds" Japan Times Jan. 29, 2002
McLelland, Mark J. Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan p.12, 28-29, 112, 144
McLelland, Mark J., Suganuma Katsuhiko and James Welker. eds. Queer Voices from Japan p. 17-18, 81-83, 94, 105-138
McNeill, David. "Shinjuku gay enclave in decline but not on the surface" Japan Times Feb. 24, 2010
Pflugfelder, Gregory M. Cartographies of Desire p.330-331
geisha 芸者 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33)
A Look Into Tokyo p.110
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.48
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.446

GEISHA, MALE see: hōkan (male geisha)

gekiga (dramatic pictures) 劇画
Dramatic pictures. This type of realistic manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80) for, mainly male, older teens and adults developed in the 1950s which often included antiheroes such as yakuza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146), rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) and the urban poor, often in violent and sexual situations. Originally these were drawn for the kashihonya market and it was in 1957 that a group of artists started to use the term, coined by Tatsumi Yoshihiro, to define their type of storytelling. The visual style originally was not that different from the regular manga of the time, however the art quickly became more realistic to match the grittiness of the tales with influences from the films of Kurosawa and American film noir. Today such stories are common in manga intended for adult consumption.
In volume 18 of Astro Boy (p.95-97) Tezuka writes about how manga was often criticized as a bad influence on children, this was before the rise of gekiga.
The Push Man and Other Stories by Tatsumi Yoshihiro is a good collection of such tales, from the late 1960s, set in modern times.
The Legend of Kamui is an example of a gekiga series set in the earlier history of Japan.
"Glossary of Terms." Comics Journal #269 July 2005 p.21
Gravett, Paul. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics p.39-
Lehmann, Timothy R. Manga: Masters of the Art p.246
Lent, John A. "Japanese Comics" in Handbook of Japanese Popular Culture p.229
Shiokawa Kanako. "Cute But Deadly: Women and Violence in Japanese Comics" in Themes & Issues in Asian Cartooning p.114
Tomine, Adrian "Introduction" to The Push Man and Other Stories by Tatsumi Yoshihiro
gekkin (moon lute) 月琴 (The Anime Companion 2 p.22)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1022

GELIDIUM JELLY NOODLES see: tokoroten (gelidium jelly)

GENBUKU see: genpuku (boy’s coming of age ceremony) (The Anime Companion 2 p.22)

GENGŌ see: Historical Periods (sidebar) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.24)

Genji 源氏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.34)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1518

GENJI FAMILY see: Minamoto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.83)

Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji) 源氏物語
A famous novel and major masterpiece of Japanese literature written by Murasaki Shikibu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89) in the early 11th century. The work is over 1000 pages long when translated into English. Most of the book is about the life and love affairs of a prince simply known as Hikaru Genji, that by his family name Genji (Minamoto The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.83) plus the word for shinning placed first. The tale is rich with details of the courtly life of the time. There survive many beautifully illustrated scrolls of the story known as Genji Monogatari Emaki.
Anime and Manga:
The Tale of Genji anime movie is available in English and some volumes of Yamato Waki's manga version have been published in a bilingual edition by Kodansha.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.449, 1518
genkan (entryway) 玄関 OLD FORM 御飯 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.34)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japanese Etiquette Today p.46
Living Japanese Style p.18
genpuku (boy’s coming of age ceremony) 元服 (The Anime Companion 2 p.22)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.447-448
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p. 654
Genrōin (Chamber of Elders or Senate) 元老院
Established in 1875 as a quasi-legislating body. It could not create legislation, rather it reviewed the proposals of others. the Genrōin was an early attempt at the division of powers. Members were chosen from scholars, the peers and high ranking bureaucrats. It was chaired by the ministers of the left and right. When the Kokkai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72) was formed in 1890 the Genrōin was dissolved.
Anime and Manga:
A corrupt scheming secretary to a Genrōin member plots in Rurouni Kenshin (TV ep.28 & v.7 p.40)
The Genrōin is mentioned later in the Rurouni Kenshin TV series (ep.93) and in episode 94 Inoue Kaoru and Itō Hirobumi arrive at the Genrōin.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.450

GENROKU ERA see: Genroku jidai

Genroku jidai 元禄時代
Specifically the nengō from 1688-1704. This term often used to refer to the rule of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi from 1680 to 1709 and sometimes to refer to the cultural flowering of the mid 17th to mid 18th centuries. This was a period of increasing wealth for the chōnin (townsmen), a flourishing of the arts, learning and consumption among the populace as a whole. The various forms of entertainment of the urban commoners flourished with kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) and bunraku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) enjoying increased popularity as did ukiyo-e painting and printmaking. Publishing expanded with the importation of new printing technologies from Korea. Some of the famous artists, playwrights and poets of the time include: Bashō (The Anime Companion 2 p.8), Chikamatsu Monzaemon, and Saikaku. The events of the Akō Jiken (47 rōnin) story took place at this time.
The abolition of the old system of permanent servitude in the second year of the Genroku era is mentioned in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.4 p.76)
Cybriwsky, Roman, Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.57
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.58
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.450
gensakusha 原作者
A story writer who teams up with a mangaka to create manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80). Not all manga are produced by one person, such writer artist teams are not unusual. The most famous gensakusha is probably Kazuo Koike.
Kazuo Koike's manga include: Lone Wolf and Cub, Lady Snowblood, Samurai Executioner, Crying Freeman. and Path of the Assassin.
Amano Masanao. Manga Design p.570
geta (wooden sandals) 下駄 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.34)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.454


geta-uranai 下駄占い
Predicting weather by kicking your geta (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.34) into the air and seeing how it lands. If it lands upright there will be sunny weather, if upside down it will rain, and if on it's side the weather will be cloudy.
In City Hunter 3 (ep.9) geta rolling to forecast the weather is mentioned.
Geta kicking in seen in Dr Slump (v.5 p.150)
Illustrated A Look Into Japan p.107

GHOST FIRE see: hitodama (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.46)

GHOST STORIES, 100 see: hyakumonogatari (100 stories)

GHOST STORY OF TŌKAIDŌ YOTSUYA see: Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (Ghost Story of Tōkaidō Yotsuya)

GHOST WITH TRIANGLE ON HEAD see: hitaikakushi (triangle on forehead)

GHOSTS see: yūrei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.149)

GIANT LANTERN PARADE FLOATS see: nebuta matsuri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.92)

GIANT MONSTERS see: kaiju (The Anime Companion 2 p.37)

Gifu ken 岐阜県 OLD FORM 岐阜縣 (The Anime Companion 2 p.23)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.454-455
Web Sites:
GIFU Prefecture (official site)

GIFU PREFECTURE see: Gifu ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.23)

ginkgo (Jp: ichō) 銀杏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35)
A Look Into Tokyo p.147
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.455
Ginza 銀座 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.706
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.50
A Look Into Tokyo p.124-
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.456
Gion 祇園 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35)
Must-See in Kyōto p.60
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.467
Gion Matsuri (Gion festival) 祇園祭 (The Anime Companion 2 p.23)
Ozawa Hiroyuki. The Great Festivals of Japan p.46-47, 96, 114
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. p.456

GION SHRINE see Yasaka Jinja (Yasaka Shrine)

GION TENJIN see Yasaka Jinja (Yasaka Shrine)

GION TEMPLE BELL, REFERENCE TO see: Heike Monogatari (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44)

GIONSHA see Yasaka Jinja (Yasaka Shrine)

giri-choko (obligatory chocolate) 義理チョコ
A contracted form of giri and chokoēto (chocolate). The custom of girls and women giving chocolate to boys and men on Valentine's Day (see: Sei-Barentain-no-shukujitsu; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.112) out of an obligation rather than feelings, see giri to ninjō (obligations and feelings). In anime and manga these are usually are small cheap chocolates.
In Futaba Kun Change (v.8 ch.2) Futaba-kun is tallying up giri-choko on a piece of paper when one of his classmates assumes he is expecting that much, later Futaba-chan is giving giri-choko to staff at the TV studio.
Cherry, Kittredge. Womansword p.41
giri to ninjō (obligations and feelings) 義理と人情
Giri is social obligations between individuals, often in reciprocal relations such as parent and child, samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) and lord, employer and employee. Giri is sometimes translated as duty. Often giri is expressed by attending events important for certain individuals, mutual gift giving or observing other social customs. Violating giri is a serious offense can make one a social outcast, on the other hand strict observance of giri can increase the respect one gets from others. Ninjō refers to human feelings towards others such as, love, affection, sympathy, sorrow, etc. Again this can be between parent and child, or lovers or close comrades. Usually there is harmony between giri and ninjō, however when conflict develops between them the stuff of stories can exist and this is reflected in kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) plays and in film. A classic example of such a story of conflict is lovers torn between the giri of family or social class and their feelings for each other.
A classic example of a conflict between giri and ninjō is the relationship between Jin and Shino in Samurai Champloo (ep.11) both of whom have duties to others conflicting with their feelings for each other.
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 169
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.456
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.657
Richie, Donald. A Hundred Years of Japanese Film p.300

GIRL see: shōjo (The Anime Companion 2 p.87)

GIRL ATTENDANT see: kamuro (young female pages or attendants)

GIRL'S DAY see: Hina Matsuri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.45)

gissha (ox cart) 牛車 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.153
Must-See in Kyōto p.81, p.114
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.457

GLASSY NOODLES see: tokoroten (gelidium jelly)

GLOBE FISH see: fugu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.29)

go 碁 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.458
A Look Into Japan p.137
Japanese Family and Culture p.142
Web Sites:
American Go Association

GOBLIN see: tengu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.134)

gobō ごぼう or 牛蒡 (The Anime Companion 2 p.23)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.45
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p. 60-1

GOBY see: haze (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.43)

GOD OF POVERTY see: bimbōgami

GOD OF THE MOUNTAIN see: yama no kami (god of the mountain)

GOD OF THUNDER SEE: Raijin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)

GOD POSSESSION see: kamigakari (possession by a kami)


GODLESS MONTH see: kaminazuki (month without gods)

GODZILLA see: Gojira (Godzilla)

GOEMON see: Ishikawa Goemon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)

goemonburo (large iron pot or tub) 五右衛門風呂
A very large iron pot or iron bathtub (see: furo, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.31), some are shallow and have wooden sides extending upward to hold more water. The tub version has a floating wooden lid that the user pushes down to the bottom with their feet. The wooden lid then becomes a platform protects the bathers feet from the heat at the bottom of the bath. This type of bath is heated by a fire directly underneath. Goemonburo have other uses such as in food processing, the Takara Sake Brewery in Berkeley California has one in their museum that was once used to help make sake. This type of cauldron got it's name from the execution of Ishikawa Goemon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51) who was boiled to death in one.
In the Sakura Wars TV series (ep.21) Yoneda enjoys a bath in a goemonburo
In Lupin III, World's Most Wanted (v.8 p.70) another Goemon, a descendant of the original, escapes from a police trap riding down a hill in a goemonburo.
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.173
Jippensha Ikku. Shanks' Mare p.42, 394
Morse, Edward S. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings p. 205
gohan (cooked rice) ごはん or 御飯 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.46
gohei 御幣 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.462, 501
Basic Terms of Shintō (1958) p.11, 14
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.128
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shintō p.35, 49
Goichigo Jiken (May 15th Incident) 五・一五事件
Right wing political movements among young naval officers had grown after the ratification of the 1930 London Naval Treaty for disarmament which set lower limits for Japanese naval vessels than for the US or British navies. After the failure of Army officers to stage a coup in 1931 naval officers allied themselves with the ultra-nationalist Inoue Nisshō, leader of the League of Blood terrorist group. On May 15, 1932 a group of young naval officers attempted a coup d'etat along with some army cadets, members of the League, the right wing agricultural educator Tachibana Kōzaburo and students from his private school, Aikyōjuku. The insurgents killed Prime Minister (see: shushō) Inukai Tsuyoshi in his official residence in Nagata-chō. They also attacked the Mitsubishi (The Anime Companion 2 p.57) Bank, the home of the Makino Nobuaki the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, the HQ of the Rikken Seiyūkai party and some transformer substations. Their attacks were largely unsuccessful and they were quickly captured by the military police.
The trial of 11 of the activists and the public response is discussed in Ghost in the Shell S.A.C. 2nd GIG (ep.5)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.940
Gojira (Godzilla) ゴジラ
Gojira Was the first Japanese film to result in an international hit and the first Japanese giant monster (see: kaijū The Anime Companion 2 p.37) film. Gojira was released in November 1954 and directed by Honda Ishirō with Shimura Takashi, Kōchi Momoko and Takarada Akira playing the main roles. Special effects were supervised by Tsuburaya Eiji. In 1955 a subtitled version played in Japanese language theaters in the US to be followed with a select theatrical release in 1982. The US re-dubbed release of the film in 1956 was so heavily edited that many portions of the original were removed, the rest of the movie being filled out by new footage with Raymond Burr to produce the film Godzilla. In 2004 Gojira again played in American cinemas, 50 years after the original was released in Japan. In September 2006 the first US release of Gojira on video included two DVD discs, one for the original movie and the other for the US Godzilla film.
Volume 1 of Dr Slump (p.53) had the first of many Gojira references that would appear in the series.
Part of the chronological clues in A Drifting Life include the release dates of films including Gojira (p.332).
"Gojira (aka Godzilla) Stomps On to U.S. Shores for the First Time Today; Classic Media Brings the Complete, Uncut, Japanese Original to DVD; The Release is Part of a Monster DVD 2-Pack, Which Includes Both Gojira and the US Version, Godzilla: King of the Monsters" PR Newswire: Sep 5, 2006.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.459
Kalat, David. A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series p.18, 30.
Johnson, G. Allen. "Godzilla Returns" San Francisco Chronicle. Sunday, May 2, 2004
Johnson, G. Allen. and Patrick Macias. "A 'Godzilla' Time Line" San Francisco Chronicle. Sunday, May 2, 2004.
Macias, Patrick. "A Monster Movie Career" San Francisco Chronicle. Sunday, May 2, 2004
Web Site:
Gojira on DVD
gokenin (vassals, housemen) 御家人
Direct hereditary samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) vassals of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) or shugo. This rank dates from the Kamakura Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) when Minamoto no Yoritomo had about 2,000 gokenin working in various positions for him, some had vassals of their own. In the Muromachi Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90) two types of gokenin existed; shogunate gokenin were called hōkōshū and those of the military governors were called jitō gokenin. In the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) most gokenin were direct vassals with a lower ranking than hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27), there were about 20,000 of them in 1800. Many gokenin had no regular jobs and were given a meagre stipend by the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8), some became trouble makers and many kabuki mono (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) of the period were such samurai.
In volume 3 of Samurai Executioner (p.150) the second son of a gokenin demonstrates his skill in cutting with the sword.
That Kamiya's father was a gokenin who had abandoned his samurai rank to study medicine is mentioned by Kondō Isami (The Anime Companion 2 p.49) to Matsumoto Ryojun in Kaze Hikaru (v.15 p.42).
In Ōoku (v.1 p.75) Sugushita speaks of his impoverished gokenin family and how he came to live in the Ōoku.
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.26-27
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.110
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.63, 76
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p. 464
Gokaidō (Five Highways) 五街道
The general name in the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) for the five main highways that radiated from the Nihonbashi bridge (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.94) in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) and which connected the city with the eastern and western provinces. These main roads were the Tōkaido (The Anime Companion 2 p.101), Nakasendō (The Anime Companion 2 p.60), Kōshu Kaidō, Nikkō Kaidō and the Ōshu Kaidō. The roads were controlled by the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) under the control of the dōchū bugyō (commissioner of highways). Post-station towns (see: shukuba machi, The Anime Companion 2 p.89) were established to provide services for travelers and over 50 barrier stations (see: sekisho) existed to check travel papers and enforce laws. The roads were used by daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) for their regular processions to and from Edo as well as government officials and ordinary people. Post-station towns and villages along the routes were assigned specific sections to maintain by the government with inspectors making sure the roads were in good shape. Distances were marked with mounds every ri (2.4 miles).
In episode 11 of Ghost Slayers Ayashi there is mention of a book called Strange Occurrences on the Five High Roads.
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.60
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.329
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.61
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.463
gōkon (mixed drinking session) 合コン
A drinking session with both men and women. This is a popular activity with college and university students as a way to socialize with the opposite sex.
Perhaps the most distrurbing gōkon in manga is when the karate teams of Eurasia University and Mitaka Seiran Women's University in GTO (v.1 ch.1) get together.
Illustrated Living Japanese Style p.157

GOKKUN see: kokkun

Gokuraku (Western Pure Land) 極楽 OLD FORM 極樂 (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)
The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion p.280
Inagaki, Hisao A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.75
Japanese-English Buddhist Dictionary p.84

GOLD FISH DIPPING see: kingyo-sukui (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68)

GOLDEN BALLS see: kintama (golden balls)

GOLDEN BOY see: Kintarō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.69)

GOLDEN GAI see: Gōruden Gai (Golden Gai)

GOLDEN PAVILION see: Kinkakuji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.69)

GOLDEN STREET OR LANE see: Gōruden Gai (Golden Gai)

GOLDEN TOWN see: Gōruden Gai (Golden Gai)

GOLDEN WEEK see: Gōruden Uīku (Golden Week)

GOLDFISH see: kingyo (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68)

GOMOKU see: renju (five-in-a-row)

GOMOKU NARABE see: renju (five-in-a-row)

GONGURO see: ganguro (black face)

Gōruden Gai (Golden Gai) ゴールデン街
Golden Gai is what this tern is usually transliterated as. Sometimes the name is translated as Golden Street, Golden Lane or Golden Town. Golden Gai is a small neighborhood on Eastern edge of the Kabukichō (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) area of Shinjuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.120) which consists of very tiny nomi-ya (The Anime Companion 2 p.64) and drinking stalls in a series of narrow streets. Most of the streets are so narrow vehicles cannot use them they are more like pedestrian walkways and the buildings are only two stories tall. The area was actually known as Hanazono Gai until it took the present name in 1965. After World War II the area became a black market in the late 1940s and a location of cheap dives for prostitutes who serviced US soldiers from a nearby base. This neighborhood has for decades withstood attempts by developers to tear it down. Golden Gai is popular with intellectuals, newspaper reporters, writers, and some prostitutes who still work the area.
Anime and Manga:
In Darkside Blues (p.273 in the manga) when Darkside gives a lift to members of the Messiah gang he drops them off in Golden Gai, translated as "Golden Street" in both.
The street with all the small signs in Patlabor The Movie in the scene where the panicked crowd is running away from an out of control Tyrant labor is modeled on Golden Gai.
Perhaps the best manga to get an idea of what Golden Gai looks like is Old Boy starting in volume 2 (p.176)
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Sex and the Japanese p.101
Saito Chikashi and Naito Keiji, chief editors. Patlabor The Movie Archives p.105
Richie, Donald. Tokyo p.129
Tokyo City Atlas 27 G2
Tokyo Walking Around p.27
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.246, 250-251
Gōruden Uīku (Golden Week) ゴ−ルデンウイーク
A period spanning several days late April and early May. These few weeks have several Japanese holidays; April 29: Midori no Hi (Greenery Day), May 3: Kempō Kinembi (Constitution Memorial Day), May 5: Kodomo-no-hi (Children's Day) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72). It is common for companies to also give May 1, May Day, off and by Japanese law May 4 is a holiday as it falls between two other holidays. Add in an occasional weekend to the mix and it is possible for there to be a holiday of up to ten days. Roads and trains are crowded during Golden Week as people travel to resort areas or the airport to make trips outside the country.
The episode "Part Time Steady" in Full Metal Panic! (ep.8) takes place during Golden Week.
Aya hounds Suekichi about going to an onsen (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.102) during Golden Week in Dance Till Tomorrow (v. 6 p.72)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.465
goryō (vengeful ghost) 御霊 OLD FORM 御靈 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.501
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.467

GORYŌKAKU, BATTLE OF see: Goryōkaku no Tatakai (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)

Goryōkaku no Tatakai (Battle Of Goryōkaku) 五稜郭の戦い OLD FORM 五稜郭の戰ひ (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.467
goshiki (five colors) 五色
The five colors. Originally a Buddhist (see: Bukkyō The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) symbol the five colors are blue (or green), yellow, red, white and black. The use of the five colors entered Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) practice and can still be found in shrines that have a historical association with Buddhism. These colors can be used in many contexts often as streamers attached to other objects.
We see broad ribbons in five colors attached to a kagura suzu in Kami Chu! (ep.1)
Inagaki, Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms
Picken, Stuart D.B. Essentials of Shintō
Goshogawara 五所川原「市」
Located in Western Aomori Ken this city's agricultural production is mainly apples and rice. Goshogawara is also a center for the distribution of the local area's farm produce.
Goshogawara is mentioned in a silly song in the Lupin the 3rd "Royal Scramble" episode "But Your Brother Was Such a Nice Guy".
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.468
Road Atlas Japan 175 E-5

GOURD see: hisago (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.45)

GOVERNORS see: shugo (military governors)

goze (blind female singers) 瞽女
Blind women musicians who traveled the country much in the way male biwa hōshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.11) did. They would earn their living performing long narratives as well as singing folk and popular songs. Elements of Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) or Buddhist (Bukkyō; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) teachings were often woven into their performances. While they performed they would play a shamisen (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.116) or a type of hand drum called a kozutsumi. Goze came into existence in the 16th century and during the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) were found in all parts of Japan. Goze were organized into groups living communally in castle towns under the protection of the local daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15). Tradition often also held that goze had supernatural abilities and they would on occasion perform rituals. A few Goze exist, the most famous of these are found in Jōetsu in Niigata Ken.
In Samurai Champloo (ep.20) a goze named Sara enters the tale for a couple of episodes, we hear her perform a song about Kuzunoha.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.473
Miner, Earl; Odagiri Hiroko and Robert Morrell. The Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature. p.275

GRAND MASTER OF GO see: Hon'imbō

GRAND SHRINE OF ISE See: Ise Jingū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)

GRAVEYARD, WOODEN STAKES IN see: sotoba (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125)

GREAT ANSEI EARTHQUAKE see: Ansei Edo Jishin (Ansei Edo Earthquake)


GREAT IPPO EARTHQUAKE see: Ansei Edo Jishin (Ansei Edo Earthquake)

GREAT KANTO QUAKE see: Kantō Daisinsai (The Anime Companion 2 p.41)

GREAT SHRINE OF ISE see: Ise Jingū (Ise Shrine) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)

GREAT SHRINE OF IZUMO see: Izumo Taisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52)

GREEN DANGO see: kusa-dango

Green Gum グリーンガム (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)
The wrapper of a pack I bought in a local store.
Green Gum Wrapper

GREAT ANSEI CRACKDOWN see: Ansei no Taigoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.5)

GREAT INTERIOR see: Ōoku (Great Interior)

GRILLED FOODS see: yakimono

GRILLED GECKO see: Imori no kuroyaki (charred newt)

GRILLED MEAT see: yakiniku (grilled meat)

GRIM REAPER see: shinigami (kami of death)


GROPER see: chikan (molester)

GROUND CHERRY see: hōzuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.29)

GROUND CHERRY MARKET see: hōzuki ichi (The Anime Companion 2 p.29)


GROUND SELF DEFENSE FORCE see: Jieitai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53)

GROUND SPIDER see: tsuchigumo (earth spider)tsuchigumo (earth spider)

GROUP MEALS see: enkai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.27)

GRUNT (FISH) see: isaki

GUANYIN see: Kannon

GUARD, SWORD GUARD see: tsuba (The Anime Companion 2 p.107)

GUARD OF A CAPE see: sakimori (border guard)

Guardian of children. See Jizō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.55)

GUDGEON see: haze (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.43)

GUJI (FUSH) see: amadai (The Anime Companion 2 p.5)

gūji (chief priest) 宮司
The term used to designate the chief priest of a Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) shrine. Some major shrines have different terms for their chief priest.
Matsuri and Miko's father in Kami Chu! is the gūji of Raifuku jinja (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54), in episode 2 he tells his daughters he is retiring and they can run the shrine.
Basic Terms of Shintō (revised edition) p.5

GULP SOUND see: kokkun

GUMMA PREFECTURE see: Gunma ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)

gundai (district deputy) 郡代
An office under the shogunate (bakufu; The Anime Companion 2 p.8), the title dates from the 14th century. They handled a variety of administrative tasks including census, tax collection, law and order as well as other functions. The daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) had their own gundai administering their lands. Those serving the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) handled lands of 100,000 koku (The Anime Companion 2 p.47) or more, daikan (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) had a similar function but oversaw areas with small levels of production. In time the number of gundai overseeing the lands of the Tokugawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) family decreased to four and oversaw the Kantō region (Kantō Chihō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61), Mino, Hida and Saigoku.
In Satsuma Gishiden (v.2 p.183) several shōya visit Kitō Heinai as he is ignoring the orders of the gundai and building accommodations for the samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) from Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80).
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.68
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.480
Gunma ken 群馬県 OLD FORM 群馬縣 (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.480
Web Sites:
Welcome to Gunma (official site)

GUNS see: teppō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.135)

gyaru (gal) ギャル
The Japanese pronunciation of the English word "gal". Sometime referred to as kogyaru a compound word of the Japanese ko, meaning child, and gal, kogyaru can also be translated as "little girl" and is believed by some to be a contraction of kokosei garu, high school girl. Commonly gyaru is transliterated as gal or gals and kogyaru as kogal. Gyaru are fashion conscious young women who often are associated with compulsive brand name centered shopping and hanging out in places like Shibuya (The Anime Companion 2 p.82) and Ikebukuro on weekends and evenings. Gyaru have created their own subcultures starting in the 1990s and given the constantly changing nature of popular fashions gyaru greatly vary in appearance depending when a particular story is set. For some they have a bad reputation seen as loose girls who sell items to buruseara shopu (bloomer-sailor shop) and engage in enjo kōsai (compensated dating), to others such accusations are false and gals just want to have a good time with their friends.
Anime and Manga:
One of the ultimate gyaru is Ran Kotobuki from Gals and Super Gals.
Sasahara's sister in Genshiken (ep.6 & v.2 p.18, 176) is a gyaru.
In episode 6 of You're Under Arrest Nakajima says that the girl on the bridge looks like a kogal.
Sashi mentions kogals in mini-skirts in Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi (ep.1)
Kazuma, Narita's housemate, considers Hatsumi a ko-gal when he first meets her in Hot Gimmick (v.5 p.112)
Miller, Laura & Jan Bardsley (eds). Bad Girls of Japan p.120, 143, 178
Fujii Mihona, Gals v.1 p.199
Richie, Donald. Tokyo p.76
Tokyo Walking Around p.28

GYM SHORTS see: burūmā (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15)

GYOKURO see: cha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.16)

gyōza (potsticker) ギョーザ or 餃子 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.37)
Eating in Japan p.97

GYPSIES see: Sanka (The Anime Companion 2 p.77)

gyūdon (beef bowl) ぎゅうどん or 牛丼 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.37)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.47
gyūnabe (beef hot pot) 牛鍋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.24)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.47

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Created: October 31, 1998

Updated: November 28, 2011