Anime Companion Supplement - R

Ra - Re - Ri - Ro - Ru

This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2.

For easy browsing go to the: Topical / Subject Index

See the regular entry pages for cross references between variant terms, differing spellings, English to Japanese terms and names:
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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
3. Japanese characters for entries
4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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For more information about this supplement see The Anime Companion Supplement main page. Additions are announced in the Anime Companion Supplement News page and in my Blog.

Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations

rabu hoteru (love hotel) ラブホテル (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.67
Japanese Inn & Travel p.32
Living Japanese Style p.99
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Bachelor's Japan p.156

RACCOON DOG see: tanuki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.133)

RADIO CALISTHENICS see: rajio taisō (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)

RADISHES see: daikon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.21)

RAIDEN see: Raijin (god of thunder) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)

Raijin (god of thunder) 雷神 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)
Today's Japan p.91
Must-See in Kyōto p.57
Must-See in Nikko p.113

RAIKO see: Minamoto no Yorimitsu

RAILWAYS see: tetsudō (The Anime Companion 2 p.100)

Rainbow Bridge レインボーブリッジ (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo image facing p.89
Tajima Noriyuki. Tokyo: A Guide to Recent Architecture p.20
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.9, 19

RAIN CHARM see: teruteru bōzu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.136)

RAIN DOORS see: amado (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5)

RAINCOAT MADE FROM REEDS see: mino (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)

raito noberu (light novel) ライトノベル
Light novels, the English phrase is used by the Japanese. These are short novels, which are often illustrated, marketed to young adults. This type of literature attained popularity in Japan in the 1980s. Included among these works are original stories and adaptations of stories from other media such as from manga and anime. Some of the stories are serialized in young adult literary magazines and then collected into books. Several US manga publishers are also publishing translations of light novels in English.
Konata asks if light novels count as proper reading in Lucky Star (ep.2).
Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide p.498
rajio taisō (radio calisthenics) ラジオ体操 OLD FORM ラヂオ體操 (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)
Discover Japan vol. 2 p. 24
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1246
Salaryman In Japan p. 23
rakugo 落語
A traditional storytelling art where a single seated performer tells a tale acting the roles of the various characters. For this reason it is at times called "sit down comedy." Performers traditionally wear a plain kimono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68) and sit on a zabuton (floor cushion) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.150) . In the Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) area their only props are an ōgi (folding fan) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.98) and a tenugui (hand or tea towel). In the Kamigata area they may also have a small table and wooden clappers. Performance is minimalist in not only in staging and props but also in its reliance on language, with an understated performance style, though some character types are exaggerated.
The predecessors to modern rakugo were entertainers in the Sengoku Jidai (Warring States Period) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) warlord retinues. People quickly learned they could make money by doing performances outdoors or by renting a place to perform and charging admission. Rakugo quickly became an inexpensive popular entertainment for the masses. Professional tellers of such tales called hanashika were established in both the Kamigata and Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) areas by the 1670s. Even today one finds many classic tales set in one of the two places. Many early stories drew on earlier folklore and Buddhist didactic tales. In 1628 a collection of stories told by Anrakuan Sakuden began a trend of publishing tales.
Rakugo tales are often conversational, the performer acting different roles with not only voices but body movements in a seated position, they also provide any needed narration. In time the structure of performances came to mainly consist of the makura (an introduction), kusuguri (humorous parts within the story), and at the end the ochi (the drop, a punchline).
The first permanent yose theater for rakugo performances was established in 1791 in Edo. In the 20th century rakugo declined due to competition from cinema. At the same time rakugo also spread to radio, starting in 1925 on Tokyo Broadcasting, and later it would be on terebi (television) (The Anime Companion 2 p.99) starting in the 1960s. As with all popular entertainment the government at times placed restrictions on rakugo during the Tempō Reforms (1841-43) stories were limited to genres considered morally uplifting. As Japan took a nationalistic direction in the 1930s rakugo was frowned upon by authorities who saw it as frivolous since performers did few patriotic tales. In 1941 many classic popular tales were banned. Rakugo humor does not lend itself well to narrow minded nationalism, some performers did tour Manchuria entertaining troops. The post war period saw a significant increase popularity as censorship was lifted and the populace wanted entertainment they could afford.
Today many classic tales are still very popular and audiences delight in seeing how a performer brings their own style to a well-known tale, new tales also continue to be written.
Performances are also available as audio recordings, on DVD even with subtitles, may be streamed on the internet, be an audio option on airline flights, international tours for Japanese overseas, Non-Japanese performers also exist such as the Canadian Katsura Sunshine who usually performs in English. Performances can take place at private parties, larger entertainment venues, and university rakugo clubs also exist.
Anime and Manga:
Descending Stories Showa Genroku Rakugo Shinju is the tale of two generations of performers.
Fallen Words is a collection of rakugo stories in manga form.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1246
Davis, Jessica Milner (ed) Understanding Humor in Japan p.99-106
Brau, Lorie. Rakugo: Performing Comedy and Cultural Heritage in Contemporary Tokyo p.52, 69, 169, 179, 181-2, 187
rāmen (noodles) ラ−メン (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)
Japanese Family and Culture p.125
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1247
Today's Japan p.81
Ramune ラムネ (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)
Condon, Jack and Camy Condon. The Simple Pleasures of Japan p.98
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.118)
ranma (transom) 欄間 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105)
A Look Into Japan p.162

RANZAN see: Arashiyama (The Anime Companion 2 p.6)

RAW FISH, SLICED see: sashimi (The Anime Companion 2 p.79)


RECORD OF ANCIENT MATTERS see: Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters)

REAL PERFORMANCE OR REAL THING see: honban (real performance, real thing)

REALM OF DARKNESS see: Yomi (Land of Gloom)

REAR VASSAL see: baishin (vassal's vassal)

RECEIVER see: uke (receiver, blocking, bottom)

RECORD OF A JOURNEY FROM THE GREAT TANG TO THE WESTERN REGIONS see: Saiyūki (The Journey To The West) (The Anime Companion 2 p.75)

RECORDS OF JAPAN see: Nihon Shoki (Chronicle of Japan)

RED AND WHITE see: aka to shiro (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.4)

RED AND WHITE CURTAIN see: kō-haku-no-manmaku (red and white curtain)

RED AND WHITE SONG CONTEST see: Kohaku Uta Gassen (Red and White Song Contest)

RED BEANS AND RICE see: sekihan (The Anime Companion 2 p.81)

RED LANTERNS see: aka-chōchin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.4)

RED MANTLE see: akamanto (red mantle)

RED OX TOY see: akabeko (bobbing ox toy) (The Anime Companion 2 p.4)

RED PAPER BLUE PAPER see: akai-kami-aoi-kami (red paper blue paper)

RED PEPPER IN BOTTLE see: kōrēgūsu (Korean pepper)

RED RICE sekihan (The Anime Companion 2 p.81)

RED SAKE CUPS AT WEDDINGS see: sakazuki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109)

red triangle (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.116
redii (lady bikers) レヂイー
Lady, while the English word is used to refer to women it also has another use. Lady can also refer to a teen aged female bōsōzoku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.14), in fact such young women prefer this term. Originally ladies' organizations were secondary groups to male bōsōzoku groups. However in the mid 1970s male groups cut back their activities due to police crackdowns. The ladies then became an independent phenomenon and continued to be significantly active into the early 1990s. They formed their own organizations with names like Baby Face and Evil Girls. Imagine what it must have been like to see over a thousand teen girls in tokkofuku (kamikaze party uniform) on loud motorcycles cruising down a major avenue ignoring traffic lights and kicking the ass of anyone in their way. Much of their style was modeled on the earlier sukeban movement. They even had Teen's Road, a magazine devoted to the ladies and their activities which sold about 20,000 copies a month until it ceased publication in 1992 when the phenomenon was winding down.
In Salaryman Kintaro (ep.4) we see a lady talking to a bōsōzoku member about the famous Hasshu run which Kintaro had led as a teen.
In Pink Sniper (p.86) we find that Yukari was the fourth head of the legendary Yokohama Paradise Butterflies.
Macias, Patrick and Izumi Evers. Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno p.34-45
redikomi (ladies' comics) レディコミ
A contraction of "ladies comics", these are manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80) publications aimed at adult women. The term is often used as a synonym for jōsei (adult women) manga. Redikomi have generated some controversy in the regular press over the explicit and sometimes extreme sexual content found in many redikomi magazines. This has led the term to be often narrowly defined as erotic manga for women, rather than to refer to all women's manga. It is still at times used broadly to also refer to jōsei manga.
Shigematsu Setsu. "Dimensions of Desire: Sex, Fantasy, and Fetish in Japanese Comics" in Themes & Issues in Asian Cartooning p.138-
Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide p.500

REED RAINCOAT see: mino (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)

REED SCREEN see: yoshizu (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)

REFRIED RICE see: yakimeshi (The Anime Companion 2 p.114)

REFUGE TEMPLE see: kakekomidera (refuge temple)

REGION see: chihō

REGISTRATION OF A DIVORCE see: rikon todoke (Notification of a Divorce)

REIKIN see: kenrikin (key money)

REISHIKI KANJŌ SENTŌKI see: Zerosen (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

reki-hakase (high master of calendar-making) 暦博士
The high master of calendar-making. The head administrator of the second department of the Ommyōryō (Bureau of Yin and Yang) who had ten apprentices under him preparing calendars.
In Shonen Onmyouji (ep 23) Masahiro is said to be going to Izumo (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52) with the "teacher of the lunar calendar", listen and you will hear the phrase "reki-hakase".
Tubielewicz, Jolanta. Superstitions, Magic and Mantic Practices in the Heian Period p.29,211

RELIGIOUS INQUISITION see: shūmon aratame (religious inquisition)

RENDEZVOUS TEAHOUSES see: ageya (rendezvous teahouses)

renge (Chinese spoon) れんげ or 蓮華 (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)
Eating in Japan p.98
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.118
renju (five-in-a-row) 連珠
A board game also known as kakugo, kyōgo, gomoku or gomoku narabe. It originally was played with standard black and white go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36) stones on a go board. The two players, each using either black or whites stones, take turns. The goal is to place 5 stones of one color in a row horizontally, diagonally or vertically. One's opponent can block one's move in their turn. The game gained popularity in the 17th century and the present name dates from 1899. In 1906 the Tokyo Renju Sha (Tokyo Renju Society) was founded with a ranking system similar to that of go. In 1936 the present day 15/15 line board came into use as a replacement for the larger 19x19 line go board. In 1988 the Renju Kokusai Remmei (The Renju International Federation) was founded.
The two gunners on the patrol boat in the "Heart of Darkness" adaptation in the Who Fighter (p.136) manga spend their spare time playing gomoku.
In Hikaru no Go (v.1 p.8) when Akari sees the board in the attic she says it is "a five-in-a-row" board.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1253
renkon (lotus root) 蓮根 (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.902
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.119
renraku-sen (ferryboat) 連絡船 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)
Outlook on Japan p.179
Living in Japan p.274
Japanese Inn & Travel p.120

RENTAL BOOKSHOPS see: kashihonya (book rental shops)

renting (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)
Living Japanese Style p.36
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.775, 1254

REPRESENTATIVE OF A DAIMYŌ see: rusui (caretaker, keeper)

RESTAURANTS CHINESE see: chūka ryōri-ya (The Anime Companion 2 p.14)

RESTAURANTS TRADITIONAL see: ryōtei (traditional restaurants)

RETAINER see also: gokenin (vassals, housemen)

REVERE THE EMPEROR, EXPEL THE BARBARIANS see: sonnō jōi (The Anime Companion 2 p.90)

revolving sushi bar see: kaiten sushi

REZU see: rezubian (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)

rezubian (lesbian) レズビアン (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)
Cherry, Kittredge. Womansword p. 115-116
Schreiber, Mark editor. Tokyo Confidential p.10

RICE BALLS see: nigirimeshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.93)

RICE BOWL see: chawan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.18)

RICE CAKE see: mochi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)

RICE CAKE ORNAMENT see: kagami-mochi (New Year rice cake ornament)

RICE CAKE POUNDING see: mochi-tsuki (mochi pounding) 餅搗

RICE CONTAINER, FOR COOKED RICE See: ohitsu (rice tub)

RICE, COOKED see: gohan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)

RICE COOKER see: denki-gama (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.22)

RICE COOKING POT see: kama (The Anime Companion 2 p.38)

RICE CRACKERS see: senbei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113)

RICE FISH see: medaka (rice fish)

RICE GOD see: Inari (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)

RICE TOPPING see: furikake (rice topping)

RICE TUB see ohitsu

RICE WITH RED BEANS see: sekihan (The Anime Companion 2 p.81)


RICKSHAW see: jinrikisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54)

RIFLES see: teppō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.135)

Rikidozan 力道山
A famous professional wrestler. Rikidozan was originally a rikishi who had left sumō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127) in 1950 after an argument with his stable master. In 1951 he entered professional wrestling with very little training, his first match was as part of a benefit at the request of the Shriners who were raising funds for disabled children. After the match Rikidozan went to the US to train under former world champion Bobby Bruns and later to compete. Due to a shortage of Japanese opponents Rikidozan arraigned bouts against foreigners, bouts in which he regularly won. To the Japanese, many still living in the ruins of cities devastated by the war, Rikidozan became a hero as he defeated big hairy gaijin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33) after hairy gaijin with his trademark "karate chop". By 1955 he was able to build a five story training center for new Japanese wresters. Rikidozan was his professional name given to him by his former sumō stable master. His Japanese name was Kanamura Mitsuhiro, actually his birth name was Kim Shin-Nak as he was born in Korea, when that nation was still part of Japan, and immigrated to Japan. Rikidozan mastered Japanese to the degree that he was able pass as Japanese and avoid the discrimination many of the ethnic Korean minority (see: zainichi kankokujin to chōsenjin) suffered. He heavily invested in construction projects, some of which may have been yakuza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) related and was often heavily in debt. On December 8, 1963 he was stabbed during an argument with a young yakuza, after treatment he developed peritonitis and slipped into a coma during surgery and died.
Yawara sees a Rikidozan poster in Matsuda's apartment in Yawara! (ep.7).
In chapter 158 of GTO (v.20) we see a "Rikidouyama" poster at the back of the pile of Oizuka's stuff. The "yama" in this translation is a misreading of the on (Chinese) reading of the Chinese character 山 by mistaking it for a kun (Japanese) reading (see: kanji, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61).
Tetsuo is offered a video of a match between Rikidozan and Masutatsu Oyama in Gin Tama (v.1 p.189).
A crowd is seen watching The Rikidozan and Kimura vs Sharpe Brothers wrestling match on a "street television" in A Drifting Life (p.262-3).
Schilling, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Japanese Pop Culture p.193-7.
Who's Who of Japan p.169.
rikishi 力士
The term used for a man who does professional sumō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127), the literal meaning is "strong man". Sometimes the term sumōtori is used.
In episode 13 of the Rurouni Kenshin TV series the character Senryouyama is a rikishi.
In Kaze Hikaru (v.2 p.162) we see a drunken Serizawa Kamo kill a rikishi in Ōsaka (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.102) who stood up to him on the street.
Buckingham, Dorothea N. Essential Guide to Sumo p. 151, 182
rikon todoke (Notification of a Divorce) 離婚届
A legal form announcing the dissolution of a marriage. All one needs to end a marriage is to submit a rikon todoke to the local government office. If the parties agree and both fill out the form the divorce is approved. However in cases where there is a conflict over divisions of property and other matters a court may be called in to make a judgement. In some cases only one of the parties may submit the form and the other files for non-acceptance.
Yokko leaves divorce papers on the table for Oji in Black Heaven (ep.13)
We see Mrs Harumi fill stamp her seal (hanko; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.40) on a rikon todoke in Junk: Record of the Last Hero (v.4 p.32)
Naobumi Abe & Ted Takahashi. The 100% Complete Illustrated Guide to Japanese Systems p.52-53

RIKUJŌ JIEITAI see: Jieitai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53)

RIN-BYŌ-TŌ-SHA-KAI-JIN-RETSU-ZAI-ZEN see: kuji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.75)

RING, LARGE, ON SHRINE GROUNDS see: chi no wa (large standing ring)

RING, SPIKED see kakute (horned hand)


RINZAI SECT see: Rinzaishū (Rinzai sect)

Rinzaishū (Rinzai sect) 臨済宗
One of the two major Japanese Zen Buddhist (The Anime Companion 2 p.122) sects, known as Lin-chi or Linji in China, the other major sect is Sōtōshū (Sōtō sect). Rinzaishū teachings were brought to Japan from China by various monks and priests in the late 12th and 13th centuries, especially the monk Eisai. With the support of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) Eisai founded the Rinzaishū temple Kenninji in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) and later the Tōfukuji monastery in the same city. Many of the Rinzaishū masters were Chinese monks who had moved to Japan. Rinzaishū emphasizes an active striving for enlightenment through encounters with enlightened teachers and employs techniques such as koans, shouts, and even striking the student. Today there are 134 branches of Rinzaishū and the teachings of the sect were spread outside Japan by persons such as D. T. Suzuki in the early 20th century.
Ashikaga Yoshiaki quotes a Rinzai text, the Rinzai shiryōken, during his conversation with Akechi Mitsuhide and Hosokawa Fujitaka in Path of the Assassin (v.9 p.228).
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.67, 1267-68

RIOT POLICE see: Kidōtai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68)

RIP OFF CLUB see: bottakuriten (rip off club)

RIPOBITAN see: Lipovitan

RITUAL POLLUTION see: kegare (ritual pollution)

RITUAL SUICIDE see: seppuku (ritual suicide) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.115)

RIVER TO THE OTHERWORLD see: Sanzu no kawa (The Anime Companion 2 p.78)

RIVER STYX see: Sanzu no kawa (The Anime Companion 2 p.78)

RIVERBOAT DUMPLING see: funa manjū


ROASTED NEWT see: Imori no kuroyaki (charred newt)

ROBE, WHITE FOR CORPSE see: katabira (unlined kimono)

ROBE, WOMAN'S see: uchikake (woman's over garment)

Rōben 良弁
689-773 A Buddhist priest (bōzu) of the Kegon sect. He was born in Sagami province and studied Hossō sect teachings under Gien. Emperor Shōmu established the temple Kinshōji for Rōben who became the second head of the Kegon sect. He helped raise the funds to build the Great Buddha at Tōdaiji and is regarded as that temple's founder.
Rōben saves Gao's life and they travel together towards Hiraizumi in Phoenix (v.4 Karma p.78-)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1271

ROE see:
karasumi (botargo)
kazunoko (herring roe)


RŌJYŪ see: rōjū (elder)

rōjū (elder) 老中
Literally "elder", the rōjū were the senior councilors to the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) in the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25). The position came into being in the 1620s and there were four or five, the number varied over time. The rōjū was headed by the rōjū shuseki or shuza. the "chief senior councilor." Each took turns serving for one month at a time, the group would meet for important descussions. They dealt with national policy, matters involving the imperial court, the daimyo, supervising bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) ministries and worked in the goyōbeya. The various offices under their control were the: Edo machi bugyō, kanjō bugyō, kanjo gimmiyaku, ōmetsuke, ongoku bugyo, obangashira, rusui, kinrizuki, koke, and sobashu. They were also known as toshiyori and the kahan no retsu, "those who affix their seal" as they cosigned the shōgun's official documents. The rōjū were selected from fudai daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.20) whose han (The Anime Companion 2 p.26) income was at least 25,000 koku (The Anime Companion 2 p.47). Their military duties included going to the front to command the troops of other daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15). Each daimyō would also have his own elders referred to as karō.
In the first chapter of volume 4 of Yagyu Ninja Scrolls: Revenge of the Hori Clan "rōjyū" Matsudaira Izunokami Nobutsuna and former sometsuke (see: ōmetsuke) Yagyū Tajimnokami Munenori discuss a problem over a game of go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36).
In Satsuma Gishiden (v.1 p.139-141) a letter from Edo karō Shimazu Shuden arrives in Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) from Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) telling how rusui Yamazawa Kozaemon was summoned by rōjū Nishio Okinokami to Edo Castle (see: Edojō, The Anime Companion 2 p.18) and given a letter regarding the flood control project in the provinces of Nōshū, Seishū and Bishū.
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.118
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.97-98
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.229
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1273
Nakai, Kate Wildman. Shogunal Politics p.4
Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion) 鹿鳴館
Designed by Josiah Condor the Rokumeikan was an expensive and extravagant two story stucco and brick building built between 1881 and 1883. It was located in Hibiya (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) just south of the present location of the Imperial hotel (Teikoku Hoteru, The Anime Companion 2 p.98). It was used for gatherings between Japanese and Westerners. Foreign Minister Inoue Kaoru hoped that such gatherings between foreign worthies and distinguished Japanese, including wives and daughters, would help raise support among Westerners for the revision of the unequal treaties. Not only were major events such as balls and charity fundraisers held in the building it also included smaller rooms for reading, music and billiards. As the attempts to revise the treaties with the West failed the building was renamed the Peer's Hall (Zazoku Kaikan) in 1890 and later became the offices of an insurance company. In 1941 the building was demolished.
In Lady Snowblood (v.1) the 5th story, "Rokumeikan Murder Panorama", has it's climax at the Rokumeikan.
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.118
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1274
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p. 43-44
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.31-32

ROKUNIN-SHŪ see: wakadoshiyori (junior councilors, young elders)

ROKUONJI see: Kinkakuji (Temple of the Golden Pavilion) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.69)

rokurokubi (long necked woman) ろくろ首
A type of bakemono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.8) which during the day looks like a normal woman. However at nighttime her neck stretches out as she hunts for her prey. One tradition has it that rokurokubi suck the ki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.67) out of men.
In Pom Poko a rokurokubi is seen during the parade sequence.
In Lady Snowblood (v.3 p.27) we see a sideshow in Asakusa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5) with a "long-necked monster".
Screech, Tim. "Japanese Ghosts", Mangajin No. 40 p.15

ROLLED SUSHI see: kanpyōmaki, makizushi

ROLLING MAT see: makisu

rōnin 浪人 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)
Pictorial Encyclopedia of Japanese Life and Events p.104
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1275
Living Japanese Style p.160

RŌNIN, FORTY SEVEN RŌNIN INCIDENT see: Akō Jiken (Akō incident)

ROOF TILE PRINT see: kawaraban

ROOF TILE WITH DEMON FACE see: onigawa (The Anime Companion 2 p.69)

ROOF TILES see: kawara (The Anime Companion 2 p.43)

ROOM CHILD see: zashiki warashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.150)

ROOSTER FESTIVAL see: tori no ichi (The Anime Companion 2 p.106)

ROPE, ON OR AROUND SOMETHING see: shimenawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.118)

Roppongi 六本木 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1276
A Look Into Tokyo p.128-
rorikon ("Lolita complex") ロリコン (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.107)
Schodt, Frederik. Dreamland Japan p.54-

ROSARY see: juzu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.57)

ROSE OF VERSAILLES see: Berusaiyu no Bara (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

RŌSHI CORPS see: Rōshigumi

RŌSHI OF AKŌ see: Akō Jiken (Akō incident)

Rōshigumi 浪士組
In 1863 officials of the Tokugawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) shōgunate organized a special group of rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18). This group was called the Rōshigumi, a word composed of rōshi and gumi, which can be translated as "group of corps". Rōshi is a word composed of the same rō as in rōnin and shi, a word designating samurai, this is a more polite word than rōnin. Even condemned criminals were allowed to join if they were considered qualified. The purpose of the Rōshigumi was to provide additional security for the trip to Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123), Tokugawa Iemochi. Once there Rōshigumi officer Kiyokawa Hachirō and a large faction supporting his views expressed objectionable pro imperial views, for this they were recalled to Edo. However a small group remained in Kyōto and was reorganized as the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) under the joint command of Serizawa Kamo and Kondō Isami (The Anime Companion 2 p.49)
The Mibu Roshigumi translated as "Mibi rōnin" are mentioned in Peacemaker (ep 3)
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shōgun's Last Samurai Corps p.13-15
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1383
rōsoku (candle) 蝋燭 FORMAL 蠟燭 (The Anime Companion 2 p.74)
Dunn, Charles J. Everyday Life in Traditional Japan p. 158: illustration - 82
Morse, Edward. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings p.219


ROTTE see: Lotte Co, Ltd (The Anime Companion 2 p.54)

ROTTEN MAN see: fudanshi (rotten man) 腐男子

ROTTEN WOMAN see: fujoshi (rotten woman)

ROUND BELL ON ROPE AT SHRINE see: suzu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.129)

ROUND MOCHI NEW YEAR ORNAMENT see: kagami-mochi (New Year rice cake ornament)

ROW HOUSES see: nagaya (The Anime Companion 2 p.59)

RURAL COMMUNITY LEADER see: toshiyori (elders, community leaders)

RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR see: Nichiro Sensō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.93)

rusui (caretaker, keeper) 留守居
The representative of a daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) when his lord is away for sankin kōtai (The Anime Companion 2 p.77). That is when the daimyo is in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) the rusui takes care of the han (The Anime Companion 2 p.26), when the daimyo is in his castle the rusui is in Edo. Edo Castle (see: Edojō, The Anime Companion 2 p.18) had several, four to six, rusui who were all hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27) supervising it, they reported to the rōjū.
In Satsuma Gishiden (v.1 p.139) a letter from the Edo karō Shimazu Shuden arrives in Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) from Edo telling how rusui Yamazawa Kozaemon was summoned by rōjū Nishio Okinokami to Edo Castle and given a letter regarding the flood control project in the provinces of Nōshū, Seishū and Bishū.
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.97-98
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1280

RYŌBEN see: Rōben

Ryōbu Shintō (Dual Shintō) 両部神道
A shortened form of the phrase Ryōbu shūgo Shintō, also called Daishiryū Shintō and Shingon Shintō. A form of Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) that is syncretic with numerous elements of Buddhism (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) mixed in. This form of Shintō began as a Buddhist attempt to harmonize Ise Shrine (see: Ise Jingū, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51) devotion with Shingonshū (Shingon sect of Buddhism) beginning as early as the 11th century by using claims that Amaterasu Ōmikami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5) was a Japanese manifestation of Dainichi Nyorai who is also referred to as the "Great Sun Buddha". In different Ryōbu Shintō theories the kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) were held to being either in need of Buddhist salvation, potentially equal to the enlightened or incarnations of bodhisattva (see: bosatsu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.13). Shintō authorities were in opposition to this proposal but the movement grew and eventually split into several sub schools, four by some accounts five by others. Ryōbu Shintō became influential and in the 18th century opposition from the Restoration Shintō movement arose and by the late 19th century Ryōbu Shintō had almost completely disappeared. While referring specifically to a Shingon interpretation of Shintō the term is often used to refer to any similar blending of Shintō and Buddhism. The term Ryōbu Shintō is usually translated as Dual Shintō or Two Sided Shintō.
That Ayako practices Ryobu Shintō is first apparent in episode 2 of Ghost Hunt when she includes Marishiten (Buddhist deity) in her norito, and later in episode 22 where it is translated as "Dual form Shinto".
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.47.
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.145.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1281.
Picken, Stuart D.B. Essentials of Shintō p.299-301.

RYŌBU SHŪGO SHINTŌ see: Ryōbu Shintō (Dual Shintō)

Ryōgokubashi 両国橋 OLD FORM 兩國橋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.74)
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.120
Enbutsu Sumiko. Old Tokyo p.147
Naito Akira. Edo, The City That Became Tokyo p.114
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.219-220, 333
Exhibiting Animation p.5
ryokan (Japanese inn) 旅館 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.107)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.608, 610-11
A Look Into Japan p.160-5

RYŌMA see: Sakamoto Ryōma (The Anime Companion 2 p.76)

ryōtei (traditional restaurants) 料亭
Traditional restaurants, these are elegant places with no fancy signs or advertising. Meals are served in separate rooms, usually overlooking a traditional Japanese garden. The rooms will have tatami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.134), a tokonoma (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.13 with a hanging scroll (see: kakemono, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59), flower arrangements (see: see: ikebana, The Anime Companion 2 p.30) and very polite waitresses. These are the types of establishments where a geisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33) may be called to provide service at a special gathering. Such luxurious dining is rather expensive and the food is prepared with great attention to detail. The styles of food are traditional and include kaiseki ryōri and *honzen-ryōri (celebration cuisine).
In the first episode of Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex involves an incident at a ryōtei where there are robot geisha.
In Oishinbo A la Carte: Japanese Cuisine, the first volume in the series, begins with am outing to a ryōtei in Akasaka (The Anime Companion 2 p.4).
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.187
Illustrated A Look Into Tokyo p.110-112
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.12
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1257
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.111, 191
Ryōunkaku (Asakusa Twelve Stories) 凌雲閣 or 浅草十二階 OLD FORM 淺草十二階 (The Anime Companion 2 p.75)
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.27
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories 141
ryū (dragon) 竜 FORMAL 龍 (The Anime Companion 2 p.75)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.417
ryū (martial arts style) 流 (the book includes a formal kanji in error) (The Anime Companion 2 p.75)
Frederic, Louis. Dictionary of the Martial Arts p.187

RYUGU-JOI see: Meguro Gajoen

Ryūkyū Shotō (Ryūkyū Islands) 琉球諸島
A chain of islands ranging in a Southwesterly direction from Kyūshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78) for 1200 kilometers (746 miles). They are referred to as the Nansei Islands in older Japanese literature. The climate is subtropical and often hit by taifū (typhoons) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.130). Up to the 15th century the islands were divided into separate domains. In 1429 Shō Hashi, the second king of the first Shō dynasty, unified the islands under his rule. Being off the coast of China starting in the 14th century the Ryūkyū kings sent tribute and accepted diplomats from China who would declare each new king the legitimate ruler. In 1609 Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) conquered the islands when they took the capital of Naha. This produced an interesting situation in which the islands were under the control of a Japanese han (The Anime Companion 2 p.26) while still in a vassal tributary relationship with China. When diplomats from China arrived all sign of the Japanese would be removed, the Satsuma officials would be in hiding. Satsuma han had been ordered to rule over the islands by the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123), even if the islands were were not officially part of Japan. In 1874 the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) government declared it's authority over the islands and in 1875 ordered the king to end the tributary relationship with China. In 1879 Shō Tai, the king of the Ryūkyū islands, resigned under great diplomatic pressure from the Japanese government and moved to Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). The Ryūkyū Islands were then renamed Okinawa. Shō Tai was made a member of the Japanese nobility and granted the junior third rank while his son was given junior fifth rank. His last years were in fact in exile from the kingdom he had ruled for 31 years.
Anime and Manga:
Usui in Rurouni Kenshin is from the Ryūkyū islands (ep.49 v.14 p.52)
The Ryūkyū area is mentioned by Saeki in the Rurouni Kenshin TV series (ep. 90)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1140, 1285
Keene, Donald. Emperor of Japan p.302-307
Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai p.15

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Created: October 31, 1998

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