Anime Companion Supplement - I


Ib - Ik - Im - Ir - Is - Iz -

This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2.

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See the regular entry pages for cross references between variant terms, differing spellings, English to Japanese terms and names:
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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
3. Japanese characters for entries
4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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For more information about this supplement see The Anime Companion Supplement main page. Additions are announced in the Anime Companion Supplement News page and in my Blog.

Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations


IAI-JUTSU see: battō-jutsu (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

ianfu (comfort women) 慰安婦
Ianfu is usually translated as "comfort women" or "comfort girls". This was a class of prostitute for Japanese soldiers in World War II. Originally they were mainly Japanese or Korean women, the largest group being Korean, shipped overseas. These were originally called the teishintai, "voluntary labor corps", later they would be called jugen ianfu, "military comfort women", or ianfu. As the war progressed local women, including European women, would often be also drafted into this service. It is estimated that over a hundred thousand, perhaps over two hundred thousand, such women existed in Japanese occupied Asia. Seventy percent of such women would not live to see the end of the war as many were on or close to the front lines. When the war ended such women continued to be recruited and organized less than a week after the surrender, this time to provide services to American soldiers.
Anime:
The science fiction anime Now and Then, Here and There depicts the brutality inflicted on women forced to be ianfu.
Sources:
Cherry, Kittredge. Womansword p.121-122
Louis, Lisa. Butterflies of the Night p.78, 210
Watanabe Kazuko "Trafficking in Women's Bodies Then and Now." Peace and Change v.20 no.4 October 1995 p.501-514
Ibaraki Ken 茨城県 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.579
Web site:
Welcome to IBARAKI Prefecture (official site)

IBARAKI PREFECTURE see: Ibaraki Ken (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)

ICHIJŌ REGENT see: Fujiwara no Koretada

ICHIJŌKYŌ see: Myōhōrengekyō (Lotus Sutra)

ichimonji (spatula) いちもんじ or 一文字 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.58)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.58)
Ichimura Tetsunosuke 市村鉄之助
The attendant for Hijikata Toshizō (The Anime Companion 2 p.28), one of the leaders of the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86). Ichimura Tetsunosuke joined the group in the fall of 1867. Before his final battle at Hakodate (The Anime Companion 2 p.25) in Hokkaidō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.46) Hijikata gave the young, then 17 year old, man several mementos of himself to take to Hino and pass on to Satō Hikogorō. These items included Hijikata's death poem, a photo of Hijikata, some of his hair, a letter and two swords. When Tetsunosuke refused to leave him Hijikata said he had no choice other than to be cut down on the spot for disobeying orders.
Anime and Manga:
Ichimura Tetsunosuke is the main character in Peacemaker and Peacemaker Kurogane.
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shōgun's Last Samurai Corps p. 173, 174 n.100

ICHI-RI MARKER see: ichirizuka (milestone mound)

ichirizuka (milestone mound) 一里塚
Mounds placed on major roads during the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) at one ri (2.44 mile or 3.9 km) intervals. These mounds were in pairs on either side of the roads and were 30 foot square and 10 feet high. The mounds had a large tree planted on them such as a hackberry, nettle or pine trees. On the Gokaidō (Five Highways) they measured the distance from the Nihonbashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.94) bridge in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18).
Manga:
In Here is Greenwood (v.4 p.106) Noriko talks to Shinobu about "ichi-ri hills" and how they always had trees for travelers to shelter under.
Sources:
Illustrated Japanese Inn & Travel p.81
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.582
Naito Akira. Edo: The City That Became Tokyo p.68

IDENTIFICATION OF SECT MEMBERSHIP see: shūmon aratame (religious inquisition)

IEMITSU SEE TOKUGAWA IEMITSU (The Anime Companion 2 p.102)

IEMOCHI see: Tokugawa Iemochi

IENARI see: Tokugawa Ienari

IENOBU see: Tokugawa Ienobu

ierō kyabu (yellow cab) イエローキャブ
A derogatory term, which came into use in the early 1990s for a woman who is easy to bed, just like how easy it is to get into and out of taxi cabs. The term was widely used in tabloid press articles about sexually aggressive young women who pursued lovers, especially foreign lovers for those women who were able to travel abroad.
Manga:
In GTO The Early Years (v.4 p. 336) Hattori bad mouths Ito in front of Tsukai, calling her "Yellow Cab Ito", sparking a quick and bloody fight.
In GTO (v.10 ch.79) Onizuka finds a page in a magazine about the "Sailor Seven" show where it says Sailor Yellow uses the "yellow cab attack."
Sources:
McLelland, Mark J. Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan p.62
McLelland, Mark. " 'A Mirror for Men?' Idealised Depiction's of White Men and Gay Men in Japanese Women’s Media" Transformations, No. 6 (February 2003)

IESHIGE see: Tokugawa Ieshige

IETSUNA see: Tokugawa Ietsuna

IEYASU SEE TOKUGAWA IEYASU (The Anime Companion 2 p.102)

IGO see: go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36)

IHARA KAKUEI see: Saikaku

IHARA SAIKAKU see: Saikaku

Ii Naosuke 井伊直弼 (The Anime Companion 2 p.29)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.585
Hillsborough, Romulus. Samurai Sketches p.208
Iijima Ai 飯島 愛
Born Okubo Matsue. A former AV (Adult Video) porn star she successfully became a TV variety show host in the 1990s. Her best selling autobiographical novel Platonic Sex was adapted in 2001 as a TV drama broadcast on Fuji TV and a movie. She also penned an advice column for girls in the magazine Popteen called "Love & Sex ER". Iijima even got involved with manga with Time Traveler Ai which she wrote and Takebayashi Takeshi drew. She retired from TV work in 2007 for health reasons. Friends found her dead at the age of 36 from pneumonia in her Shibuya-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.82) condo on Dec 24, 2008, at that time she had been dead for about a week.
Manga:
Time Traveler Ai, published in the US by CPM Manga, by Iijima Ai & Takebayashi Takeshi is a fictional adventure story with Iijima as the main character.
In GTO The Early Years (v.10 ch.171) a beat up Tsukai and Ryuji joke about what could be motivaing guys to join up with Tamaru's gang, one says it would take "uncut photos of Ai Iijima" to get him to join.
Sources:
Iijima's death laid to pneumonia The Japan Times: Thursday, Feb. 5, 2009
TV celebrity Ai Iijima found dead The Japan Times: Thursday, Dec. 25, 2008
Writ large on the small screen The Japan Times: Sunday, Sept. 23, 2001

IJŪININ FAMILY see: Ijūinshi (Ijūin family)

Ijūinshi (Ijūin family) 伊集院氏
Starting in the 13th Century the Ijūin family were provincial leaders in southern Kyūshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78). The Ijūin family is a branch of the famous Shimazushi (Shimazu family). In the 14th century the Ijūin sided against the Shimazu and for Prince Kanenaga following the Kemmu Restoration. The Ijūin were retainers of the Shimazu starting in the 16th Century until the end of the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25). During the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) they were made part of the nobility with the rank of Viscount.
Anime and Manga:
In City Hunter the fact that Ijūin is Umibozu’s real family name causes many to contrast his rough appearance with the distinguished family.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.586
Papinot, E. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan p.196
ika (squid and cuttlefish) いか or 烏賊 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1457

IKARUGADERA see: Hōryūji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47)

ikebana (flower arranging) 生け花 (The Anime Companion 2 p.30)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.379-383
Ikebukuro 池袋
Located in Toshima-ku of Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104), this area was an agricultural district in the Edo Period, during the Meiji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) and Taisho (The Anime Companion 2 p.95) periods a rail terminus led to development. It was during the Meiji period that Sugamo Prison was relocated to this area, eventually it was moved again to Fuchu but not before being used to incarcerate class A war criminals after W.W.II. In the 1970s greater development made the area, along with Shinjuku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.120) and Shibuya (The Anime Companion 2 p.82), one of the three largest commercial subcenters of the city. Many small shops exist here on narrow streets dating from the early days of it's development. Landmarks in the area include Ikebukuro Eki (Ikebukuro station), Ikebukuro Nishiguchi Kōen (Ikebukuro West Gate Park), Mitsukoshi Department Store, Tōbu Department Store, Seibu Department Store, Marui, the Tokyo Metropolitan Art Space, Hotel Metropolitan and Sunshine City (built on the former site of Sugamo Prison)
Anime:
Birdy took Tsunomu, in his sleep, to Ikebukuro in Birdy the Mighty (ep 2)
In Otogi Zoshi episode 21 is titled "Ikebukuro" and takes place in this area, mainly in Ikebukuro Nishiguchi Kōen
Manga:
The ultimate manga related to Ikebukuro is IWGP, Ikebukuro West Gate Park.
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 231
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.586
Look Into Tokyo p.154
Tokyo City Atlas p.24
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then: An Explorer's Guide p.343
Ikebukuro Eki (Ikebukuro station) 池袋駅
A major train station located in Toshima-ku Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). Ikebukuro station serves six train lines, including the Yamanote Sen (The Anime Companion 2 p.115), and two subway lines. It is the center of the commercial district of Ikebukuro.
Anime:
Ikebukuro station is mentioned in the first episodes of Ai Yori Aoshi and Chobits.
Manga:
We see the station early on in IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park (v.1 p.11)
Sources:
Tokyo City Atlas p.24
Ikebukuro Nishiguchi Kōen (Ikebukuro West Gate Park) 池袋西口公園
A large park located near the west gate of Ikebukuro Eki between the Tōbu Department store and the Tokyo Metropolitan Art Space.
Anime:
Episode 21 of Otogi Zoshi "Ikebukuro" is centered in the park which is identifiable by the trees and sculptures mounted at the ends of poles.
Manga:
The manga IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park gets it's name from the fact that the story begins here.
Sources:
Tokyo City Atlas p.24

IKEBUKURO WEST GATE PARK see: Ikebukuro Nishiguchi Kōen

Ikeda Kikunae 池田菊苗
1864-1936 A chemist who played an important role in Japan. He was born in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) and attended Tōkyō Daigaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.138). Later he became a professor at his Alma Mater. In 1917 he played a role in establishing the Rikagaku Kenkyūjo (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) becoming the first director of it's chemistry department. His is best known in the West for his analysis of konbu (The Anime Companion 2 p.48) in which he discovered MSG (monosodium glutamate)
Manga:
Kikunae's visit to London on his way home from his studies in Germany and his meeting with Natsume Sōseki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.91) in that city is mentioned in The Times of Botchan (v.1 p. 70)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.586
Ikeda Terumasa 池田輝政 (The Anime Companion 2 p.30)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.587
Frederic, Louis. Japan Encyclopedia p.378

Ikedaya Jiken 池田屋事件 (The Anime Companion 2 p.30)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Ryoma: Life of a Renaissance Samurai p.227-230
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.587
Who's Who of Japan p.153

IKEZUKURI see: ikizukuri

iki (aesthetic ideal)
An important aesthetic and stylistic ideal for commoners in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) during the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) especially in the late 18th and early 19th century. Originally the term meant "heart" or "spirit", later it took on the meaning of "high heart" or "high spirit" in reference to the mannerisms of a high spirited person. It included not only sophisticated behavior but also speech and clothing. The closest term we have in the West is "cool". It also had an appreciation of common arts such as the theater and the entertainment of the Yoshiwara or other pleasure quarters. It existed in contrast to the pretentious airs of the samurai in that it was unpretentious, even indifferent to status while appreciative of sensuality without being crude.
Anime:
When he sees Mitsukoshi's elegant gift Yotsuya says "iki des ne" which is translated as "How cool", in Maison Ikkoku (ep.51)
Sources:
Condon, John and Keisuke Kurata In Search of What's Japanese About Japan p.43
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.72
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.588
Richie, Donald. The Image Factory p.13-14
ikigami (living human deity) 生き神
A living person who is considered a kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59). The term was applied to emperors until the end of World War II when the Shōwa Tennō (The Anime Companion 2 p.88) renounced the title. Persons were also declared to have been ikigami after their deaths when they were deified. Some famous cases include Sugawara-no-Michizane (The Anime Companion 2 p.91), Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102), Oda Nobunaga (The Anime Companion 2 p.65), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.140), Nogi Maresuke (enshrined in Nogi Jinja), Saigō Takamori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.107) (enshrined in Nan-shu-jinja). During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) this term began being applied to those who were still living. The title of ikigami was given to people from all walks of life. Meiji shrine (see: Meiji Jingū, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81) in Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) is dedicated to the Meiji Emperor who also had shrines in his honor while he was still alive.
Anime:
Yurie in Kamichu! is perhaps the cutest ikigami one finds in anime.
Ryo refers to himself as the "living god", ikigami is the Japanese term spoken, of mokkori (male arousal) at the end of episode 49 of City Hunter.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.588
Picken, Stuart D.B. Essentials of Shintō p.102-103
ikizukuri (live sashimi) いきづくり or 生き作り or 活き造り (also called ikezukuri いけづくり or 生け作り or 活け作り)
A style of sashimi (The Anime Companion 2 p.79) in which a live fish is cut up and the meat is carefully arraigned on the bones with the head and tail still attached and the whole thing is served while still moving.
Manga:
We see a large ikizukuri at a meal taking place in a yakuza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) house in GTO (v.20 ch 161)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. Dictionary of Japanese Food p.59, 127

IKKA SHINJŪ see: shinjū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.119)

ikki (peasant revolt) 一揆 (The Anime Companion 2 p.31)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.589
Ikkoku Ichijō Rei (Law of One Castle per Province) 一国一城令
A law issued after the destruction of Ōsakajō (Ōsaka Castle) in 1615 by Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) ordering the daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) to destroy any castle (shiro; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.122) they were not living in. Something like 400 castles were destroyed, mainly in in Western Japan. The purpose of the law was to reduce the military strength of the daimyō and thereby reduce the chance of rebellion.
Manga:
The retired daimyō of Oyamada han has taken it upon himself to restore an old castle in the han in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.2 p.108)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.589

IKKŌSHŪ see: Jōdo-Shinshū

Ikumatsu 幾松 (The Anime Companion 2 p.31)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Ryoma: Life of a Renaissance Samurai. p.172, 243
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.776
ikura (Salmon roe) イクラ (The Anime Companion 2 p.31)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.59

ILLEGAL SEX INDUSTRY see: ura fūzoku (illegal sex industry)

ILLUSTRATED NIGHT PROCESSION OF 100 DEMONS see: Gazu hyakkiyagyō (Illustrated night procession of 100 demons)

IMAGE CLUB see: imēji kurabu

IMAGE TO STEP ON see: fumie (picture to step on)

imēji kurabu (image club) イメージクラブ
An image club, often shortened to imekura, is a type of sex club where the girls dress up in costume, often which rooms outfitted to look like class rooms, medical offices, commuter train cars etc where the customer and staff play out roles. In most clubs customers pay to fondle the girls, however in clubs that allow illegal activities, they can pay to have sex with them. The cosplay (see kosupure; The Anime Companion 2 p.50) element in sex clubs began in the 1970s when clubs began to have workers dress up as a way to further stimulate jaded customers. Over the years the concept was refined into a variety of services and fantasies so by the 1990s image clubs came into existence. Today there are some clubs where customers can dress up, including clubs where straight men can dress as women and hang out. In some such clubs even have sex with women, an act referred to as rezupurei, 'lesbian play'.
Manga:
In IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park (v.2 p.83) a former class mate of Makoto's is being followed by shady guys so she can only meet him where she works, the Moonlight Oasis image club.
In the Kodansha bilingual edition of GTO Onizuka confesses to having never been in an image club (v.3 ch.17 p.48). In the TOKYOPOP translation the term image club is not mentioned.
Sources:
Constantine, Peter, Japan's Sex Trade p.11, 139-46
McLelland, Mark J. Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan p.11, 45
Richie, Donald. The Image Factory p.70
Sinclair, Joan. Pink Box: Inside Japan’s Sex Clubs p.16, 132, 187

IMEKURA see: imēji kurabu (image club)

imikotoba (taboo words and expressions) 忌詞
In Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) there is a belief that certain words are repulsive to the kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) and are to be avoided during ritual periods, other words are substituted for the taboo terms. Some of the avoided words are Buddhist terms others have associations with illness, death, or polluting things. This practice extends into daily life with term substitutions used by specific trades. One even finds taboo words for special situations in life such as weddings where words for cut, or to end are taboo. One example of as word substitution in writing is in the name of the Yoshiwara which was originally built on a reed plain; the written word for reed, yoshi, also has bad connotations, so another kanji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61) with the same pronunciation was substituted which has good ones.
Anime:
An example of a taboo term is when Tsutomu's sister fumbles with a sausage a breakfast knocking it onto the floor and she says "it dropped", this as he is getting ready to leave for his High School entrance exam in Birdy the Mighty: Double Trouble (ep 1).
In episode 3 of Maison Ikkoku Godai is tormented during entrance exam time by both Kinrato, who unintentionally uses taboo words and Yostsuya who intentionally uses them.
Convinced Ota has failed in his omiai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.101) Asuma tells Noa a list of taboo words to avoid when speaking around Ota, Patlabor the TV Series (ep. 12).
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.18.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1494.
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.58.
Illustrated Say it in Japanese p.184.

IMMEDIATE FELLATIO see: sokushaku (immediate fellatio)

imori no kuroyaki (charred newt) 井守の黒焼
Perhaps the most famous type of kuroyaki (charred plants & animals), this is made from a charred newt (imori), sometimes imori is mistranslated as gekko or lizard. Originating in a belief that if a married couple shared a charred imori they would have a happy marriage, this came to be considered an aphrodisiac. Traditional ways of administering it in powdered form include putting a packet in one's clothes as well as secreting another packet of it in the clothing of the beloved, sprinkling it on their head or putting in it their drink.
Anime:
Jigoro offers to sell imori no kuroyaki medicine, translated as "grilled gecko ointment", in Yawara! (ep.20).
In Spirited Away Kamaji gives Lin a "roasted newt", literally a imori no kuroyaki, when he asks her to help Chihiro get a job at the bath house.
Manga:
In Moyasimon (v.2 p.131) during the Spring Festival Itsuki sensei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.114) sets up a table selling an expensive set of aphrodisiacs including a charred newt; later we see it in use.
Sources:
Hildburgh, W. L. "Notes on Some Japanese Majinai Connected with Love". Man v.15 (1915) p.170.
Joya Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.70

IMPERIAL HOTEL see: Teikoku Hoteru (The Anime Companion 2 p.98)

IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY see: Dai Nippon Teikoku Rikugun (The Anime Companion 2 p.14)

IMPERIAL MEIJI ARMY see: Dai Nippon Teikoku Rikugun (The Anime Companion 2 p.14)

IMPERIAL PALACE (TOKYO) see: Kōkyo (Imperial Palace in Tokyo)

IMPERIAL REGALIA see: Sanshu no jingi (3 sacred treasures, mirror sword jewel)

IMPERIAL REVERENCE BARBARIAN EXPULSION MOVEMENT see: sonnō jōi (The Anime Companion 2 p.90)

IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY see: Teikoku Daigaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.134)

IMPERIALISTS see: shishi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86)

IN see: inzō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)

IN Shirīzu IN-シリーズ (The Anime Companion 2 p.31)
Sources:
A "Vitamin" packet I got at the San Francisco Nijiya Market and the web site for the Japanese division of the company.
Inari 稲荷 OLD FORM 稻荷 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)
Sources:
Outlook on Japan p.123
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.571
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.597
inarizushi いなりずし or 稲荷鮨
A type of sushi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.128) made by taking a piece of abura-age which has been sweetened by boiling in a mixture of soy sauce (see: shōyu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124) and sugar, slicing off the end and then stuffing the inside with sushi rice. The name is a combination of Inari (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48) and sushi. This comes from the tradition that says foxes (see: kitsune, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.71), the messenger for Inari, have a fondness for abura-age. In Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) this dish could even be found sold on the street by vendors.
Anime:
Doumeki says tomorrows lunch should be inarizushi in episode 13 of the xxxHOLiC TV series.
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.223
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.81
Naito Akira. Edo: The City That Became Tokyo 161
Smyers, Karen A. The Fox and the Jewel p.96

INCENSE COIL see: katorisenkō

INCENSE MONEY see: kōden (incense money)

INDIVIDUAL SMALL TABLE FOR FOOD see: zen (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

INEBRIATION see: yopparai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.148)

IN'EI see: Kakuzenbo Hoin In'ei

INFANTRY see: ashigaru (The Anime Companion 2 p.6)

INGEI see: inzō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)

INK AND BRUSH KIT, PORTABLE see: yatate (portable Ink and brush kit)

INK ON FACE see: hanetsuki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.40)

INK see: sumi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127)

INLAND SEA see: Seto Naikai (The Anime Companion 2 p.82)

INN see: ryokan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.107)

INNER COMPLEX OF EDO CASTLE see: Ōoku (Great Interior)

Inokashira Onshi Kōen 井の頭恩賜公園 (The Anime Companion 2 p.31)
Sources:
Waley, Paul Tokyo Now & Then: An Explorer's Guide p.454
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.52 Web site:
Inokashira Park [PDF]
inori (prayer) 祈り (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.49)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1223
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shintō p.33, 96, 98, 132, 135
inoshishi (wild boar) 猪 OLD FORM 猪 FORMAL 豬 (The Anime Companion 2 p.32)
Sources:
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.135, 157
Inoue Kaoru 井上馨
1836-1915 A major politician of the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81). He was the son of a samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) family in Chōshū han (The Anime Companion 2 p.13) he joined the sonnō jōi (The Anime Companion 2 p.90) movement. He was one of those, along with Takasugi Shinsaku (The Anime Companion 2 p.96), who attacked the British Legation in January 1863. However he was aware of the importance of Japan learning from the West and in June of that same year he left for England to study. On that trip he met and befriended Itō Hirobumi and Yamao Yōzō. After six months of studies he return to Japan and played a role in negotiations between Choshu han and the Western powers, he later was to play a role in the Satchō Dōmei (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) alliance. During the Meiji Period he held a variety of positions including vice-minister of finance where he promoted the development of industry and proposed many significant reforms. Conservatives eventually forced him to resign, at this time he began forming relations with several companies and played a role in founding Senshū Kaisha, a trading company. He later returned to government work and became Minister of Public Works and later Foreign Minister. As Foreign Minister he unsuccessfully sought the revision of the unequal treaties with the West. He resigned in 1887 and served in other capacities including Agriculture Minister and home Affairs Minister. He retired from public office in 1901 but continued to advise on financial matters.
Anime:
In the Rurouni Kenshin TV series (ep. 94) Inoue Kaoru and Itō Hirobumi arrive at the Genrōin.
Manga:
Inoue Kaoru's use of the Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion) to promote foreign relations is mentioned in Lady Snowblood (v.1 p.216)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.608
inrō 印籠 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.49)
Sources:
A Look Into Japan p.44
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.612

INSECT REPELLANT SMOKE see: kayari (smoke to repel insects)

INSHUN see Kakuzenbo Inshun

INSPECTOR see: metsuke (inspector, censor)

INSPECTORS GENERAL see also: ōmetsuke (inspectors general)

INTENDANTS see:
daikan (The Anime Companion 2 p.15)
gundai (district deputy)

INTERIOR MINISTRY see: Naimushō (The Anime Companion 2 p.60)

INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL FOR THE FAR EAST see: sensō hanzai ni kansuru saiban (The Anime Companion 2 p.82)

INVITING MALE AND INVITING FEMALE see: Izanagi no Mikoto to Izanami no Mikoto (Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto)

INVITING POSTURE OR STRATAGEM see: sasoi (inviting posture or stratagem)

inzō 印相 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)
Sources:
A Look Into Japan p.29
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.622
Who's Who of Japan p.33

IPPO EARTHQUAKE see: Ansei Edo Jishin (Ansei Edo Earthquake)

irezumi (tattoo) 入墨 or 文身 or 刺青 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.110
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1532
Iriomotejima 西表島
The largest (284 sq km, 110 sq mi) island in the Yaeyama island group in Okinawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.99). This hilly island is one of several that make up Iriomote National Park and is a popular tourist destination. Iriomotejima is also the only habitat of the Iriomote yamaneko (Iriomote wildcat).
Manga:
In volume 12 of GTO (ch.97) Onizuka hears of a legend that the Treasure of Jashumon, hidden by "Shirohiki Amakusa" (see: Amakusa Shirō; The Anime Companion 2 p.5), is possibly on Iriomotejima while while talking to students on a school trip (see: shūgaku ryokō; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124) to Okinawa.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.624
Iriomote yamaneko (Iriomote wildcat) 西表山猫
Mayailurus iriomotensis. A species of wild cat found only on Iriomotejima in Okinawa Ken (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.99). These cats were discovered in 1965 and identified as a new species in 1967. This species has a body about 50 cm in length (20 in) and a tail about 23 cm (or 9 in) long. Iriomote yamaneko are endangered due to habitat loss from development.
Anime:
In Azumanga Daioh (ep.21) Sakasi befriends an Iriomote yamaneko kitten while on a school trip (see: shūgaku ryokō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124) on the island.
Manga:
In Here is Greenwood (v.1 p.181) one of the students in the dorm talks about how his family cat was thought to be strange unti they realized it was an "Iriomote wildcat".
Sources:
Illustrated Today’s Japan p.32
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1701

IRIS FESTIVAL see: Kodomo-no-Hi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72)

IRISES see: ayame (The Anime Companion 2 p.7)

Iriya 入谷 (The Anime Companion 2 p.32)
Sources:
Gluck, Jay, Sumi Gluck and Garet Gluck. Japan Inside Out p.1177
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.14-15
iroha いろは or 伊呂波 (The Anime Companion 2 p.32)
Sources:
Kodansha's Furigana Japanese - English Dictionary. p.41
iroha uta (iroha poem) 伊呂波歌

A poem dating from the Heian Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44) which uses all but one of the characters of the hiragana and katakana systems of writing, see: kana (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.60). The one that is not used is for the sound "n". This poem uses each character only once and was used to organize words in dictionaries, today the gojūon zu system is usually employed for this. The origin of the poem is ascribed to Kūkai, today scholars believe it is later Heian origin.

In hiragana the iroha uta looks like this:

いろはにほへと
ちりぬるを
わかよたれそ
つねならむ
うゐのおくやま
けふこえて
あさきゆめみし
ゑひもせす

Transliterated with modern pronunciation the poem reads as:

Iro wa nioedo
Chirinuru o
Waga yo tare zo
Tsune naran
Ui no okuyama
Kyō koete
Asaki yume miji
Ei mo sezu

Manga:
Akesato teaches the mute Mabo the Iroha poem so he can communicate without speaking in Kaze Hikaru (v.11 p.69).
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.624
Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature p.278-279

IRON POT see: nabe (The Anime Companion 2 p.59)

IRON TUB, LARGE see: goemonburo (large iron pot or tub)

irori (sunken hearth) 囲炉裏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.625
Iruma 入間 [市] (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.626
Web site:
Iruma official site
isaki いさき or 伊佐木 or 伊佐幾
Parapristipoma trilineatum. Grunt, a type of fish. The best type is caught in summer. When fresh it makes good sashimi (The Anime Companion 2 p.79). Common ways of cooking include salt grilling and deep fried.
Manga:
A door to door fish seller offers isaki to Asaemon in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.14)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.60
Ise 伊勢 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.626
Discover Japan v.2 p.196
Web site:
Ise City
Ise Jingū (Ise Shrine) 伊勢神宮 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.627
Discover Japan v.2 p.196
ishi-age (Stone or pebble offerings) 石上げ
An offering of a stone or pebble. These are placed on Jizō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.55) or other roadside statues, on the beams of torii (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.139), stone lanterns (see: ishi-dōrō; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51), sacred mountain tops or even loaded on carts at certain festivals. Sometimes the stones have prayers inscribed on them and are taken home to be returned after the prayer is answered.
Anime:
In episode 13 of Sorcerer Hunters we see a shrine card (see: senja-fuda; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) covered torii with rocks on it.
Sources:
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.62
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.573
Ishida Mitsunari 石田三成 (The Anime Companion 2 p.32)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.629
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.46
ishi-dōrō (stone lantern) 石灯籠 OLD FORM 石燈籠 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.878
Ishihara Shintarō 石原慎太郎 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.629
Ishikawa Goemon 石川五右衛門 OLD FORM 石川五右衞門 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.51)
Sources:
Must-See in Kyōto p.178
Who's Who of Japan p.116
Piggott, Juliet. Japanese Mythology p.101
Ishikawa Takuboku 石川啄木 (The Anime Companion 2 p.32)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.632
Who's Who of Japan p.162
Ishiyama Honganji 石山本願寺
A temple town, the headquarters of the Honganji branch of Jōdo-Shinshu Buddhism (Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15). Ishiyama Honganji was located where the Yodogawa and Yamatogawa rivers empty into Naniwa Bay. Originally the temple was a chapel founded by the priest Rennyo Kenju, quickly the large number of visitors resulted in more buildings being built until a large temple complex and town had come into existence. Ishiyama Honganji controlled a large domain during the Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) and the temple town was an impressive fortress defended both by walls and the natural features of the area. The territory of Ishiyama Honganji was attacked by Oda Nobunaga (The Anime Companion 2 p.65) and the complex laid siege to for ten years from 1570-80. After it's surrender the temple burned down, it is believed on the orders of, Kyōnyo Kōku, the head of Ishiyama Honganji. Today the area is known as Ōsaka (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.102) and the present location of Ōsakajō (Ōsaka Castle) is where Ishiyama Honganji was.
Anime:
The fire at Ishiyama Honganji is mentioned as the doing of Nobunaga's vassels in Wrath of the Ninja: The Yotoden Movie
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.633
Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Fortified Temples and Monasteries AD 710-1602 p.34-37

ISSA see: Kobayashi Issa (The Anime Companion 2 p.47)

Itabashi-ku 板橋区
A ward of Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) on the Musashino Plateau bordered on the West by Nerima-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.61), the South by Toshima-ku, the East by Kita-ku and the North with the Arakawa river as the border with Saitama-ken. Itabashi was a post town (shukuba machi; The Anime Companion 2 p.89) during the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25). Itabashi was counted as one of "The Four Waystations of Edo" and was the first stop on the Nakasendō (The Anime Companion 2 p.60). The area was heavily developed after WWII with the construction of large numbers of housing units. It is also the location of many small and medium size manufacturing plants.
Anime:
Itabashi is mentioned in episodes 36 and 43 of the Patlabor TV series.
Sources:
Naito Akira. Edo: The City That Became Tokyo p.176-177
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.635
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas 36
Web Site:
Official site English section: Information in English | 板橋区
itadakimasu いただきます
A common phrase of uncertain origin spoken in thanks before beginning a meal. The phrase means "I receive" and children are taught to use it to express thanks for the meal they are receiving. One sometimes hears it when someone is receiving something other than a meal.
Anime:
Itadakimasu is said by D, not knowing the flavorful experience she is about to have, before she eats C-Ko's cooking in Project A-Ko: Plot of the Daitokuji Financial Group.
Examples of saying itadakimasu before a meal include Lisa before drinking coffee in Bubblegum Crisis (ep. 8) and Asamu says before having sex with a woman in Sanctuary.
Manga:
Of course in a food oriented series like Oishinbo A la Carte we expect to see the term commonly used, as in Oishinbo A la Carte: Ramen & Gyoza (p.265).
Sources:
Illustrated Japanese Family & Culture p.43
Illustrated Japanese Inn & Travel p.53
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.317
Itagaki Taisuke 板垣退助 (The Anime Companion 2 p.33)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.635
Who's Who of Japan p.155
itamae (Japanese chef) 板前
The chef for Japanese cooking, who would be in charge of the kitchen in larger restaurants. The term literally translates as "in front of the board" refering to the cutting board.
Manga:
In Oishinbo A la Carte: Japanese Cuisine (p.33-) a competition between a Japanese itamae and an American who is training to be an itamae takes place.
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.62

ITINERANT TRAINING IN MARTIAL ARTS see: musha shugyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)

Itō Hirobumi 伊藤博文
1841-1909 A major politician of the Meiji Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81). Born in Chōshū han (The Anime Companion 2 p.13) he was active in the sonnō jōi (The Anime Companion 2 p.90) movement. He was one of those, along with Takasugi Shinsaku (The Anime Companion 2 p.96) and Inoue Kaoru, who attacked the British Legation in January 1863. He was granted samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) status later in 1863 and sent to England to study, this trip was in violation of the laws of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123). Impressed with what he saw he abandoned his anti-Western views and became a supporter of opening Japan. On his return he and Inoue Kaoru helped negotiate with the Western forces after the Shimonoseki bombardment. After the fall of the shōgun he was made san'yo with responsibilities in foreign affairs. In 1870 he went to the United States to study currency systems. In 1871 he was given new posts in the Tax Division and public works, he also was a member of the Iwakura Mission to the West. After the deaths of Kido Takayoshi (The Anime Companion 2 p.46) in 1877 and Ōkubo Toshimichi (The Anime Companion 2 p.68) in 1878 he became one of the most powerful members of the government. He again traveled overseas, this time to Germany to study constitutional law. On his return in 1883 he played a role in the writing of the constitution. In 1885 he became the first Prime Minister (see: shushō) of Japan, a post he was to hold for four terms in his life. After the Sino-Japanese war he was successful in revising parts of the unequal treaties with the West. After years of dealing with internal politics he resigned his final term as Prime Minister in 1901. He was not inactive from politics for long, in 1903 he became the head of the Privy Council. After the Russo-Japanese war (Nichiro Sensō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.93) he went to Korea on a diplomatic mission and the following year, 1906 as Japan's resident general, in 1907 he forced the Korean emperor to abdicate and made Korea a protectorate of Japan. On a visit to Manchuria he was assassinated in Harubin (Harbin) by a Korean nationalist.
Anime:
In the Rurouni Kenshin TV series (ep. 94) Inoue Kaoru and Itō Hirobumi arrive at the Genrōin.
Manga:
The assassination is seen in The Times of Botchan (v.2 p.47)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.637
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.215
Itō Kashitaro 伊東甲子太郎
1835–1867 A rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) from Hitachi province. He was an accomplished swordsman and instructor of the Hokushin Ittō Ryū (The Anime Companion 2 p.28) in Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18). He was also a scholar of literature and politics. In 1864 he joined the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) at the urging of Kondō Isami (The Anime Companion 2 p.49) and relocated to Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) and became a staff officer. His stance of Imperial Loyalism and influence in the Shinsengumi proved to be divisive. In 1867 he and a group of men seceded from the Shinsengumi under the fiction of getting closer to loyalists to spy on them. Kondō was not fooled and ordered Saitō Hajime to go with the group as his spy. Ito had in turn left some of his own men behind to spy and cause trouble on their own, after the death of four of the men for attempted desertion Ito plotted revenge. He planned to set fire to the Shinsengumi headquarters and kill the leaders as they fled the building, Saitō was one of the men he trusted with this plan. On an evening in November he attended a meeting with Kondō where they drank until after dark, on his way home Ito was attacked and killed by a group of Shinsengumi members at the Aburakoji-Shichijō crossroads.
Manga:
A celebration in honor of Ito joining the Shinsengumi is seen in Peacemaker Kurogane (v.2 p.6) where he pays a little too much attention to Hijikata Toshizō (The Anime Companion 2 p.28)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi p.102-3, 117-20, 123-24

IT'S TOUGH BEING A MAN see: Otoko wa Tsurai Yo (It's Tough Being a Man, aka: The Tora-san movies)

Itsukushima 厳島
An island located in Hiroshima Bay on the Inland Sea, (Seto Naikai The Anime Companion 2 p.82). The island is very hilly and heavily forested. The most famous feature is the Itsukushima shrine with it's huge torii (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.139) in the bay between the island and Honshū. This is where the army of Mōri Motonari defeated that of Sue Harukata in 1555. The island is also known as Miyajima and the island and torii are considered one of the Nihon Sankei, the famous "Three Views of Japan"
Anime:
Miyajima is mentioned in the Urusei Yatsura TV series (ep. 55 story 78).
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.639

ITURUP see: Etorofu

iwatake いわたけ or 岩茸or 石茸
Umbilicaria esculenta. A lichen, sometimes wrongly called a mushroom, which is gathered from cliff faces. It is given a good washing then soaked for two days before being used. The main uses are in tenpura (The Anime Companion 2 p.99) and sunomono (a type of salad). A plant usually has to be about 100 years old to be big enough to be worth picking. Iwatake is a luxury item due to it's expense which is partly a result of the danger involved in gathering it. Today it is mainly gathered in Shikoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.84), in the past other parts of Japan used to also be sources.
Manga:
Jan uses iwatake "mushrooms" in round four, the "Eternal Youth and Longevity" round, of the cooking contest between him and Taoist Gogyo in Iron Wok Jan! (v.10 p.76)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.63
Iwate ken 岩手県 OLD FORM 岩手縣 (The Anime Companion 2 p.33)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.643
Web sites:
Welcome to Iwate prefecture's Home Page! (official site)

IWATE PREFECTURE see: Iwate ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.33)

izakaya (small taverns) いざかや or 居酒屋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.33)
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.128, 179
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.63
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman. Japan From A to Z p.10

IZANAMI NO MIKOTO see: Izanagi no Mikoto to Izanami no Mikoto (Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto)

Izanagi no Mikoto to Izanami no Mikoto (Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto) いざなぎの命といざなみの命
In Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto are seventh generation male and female kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) who were given the task of creating land by the Heavenly kami. Their names can be read as Inviting Male and Inviting Female. This they did by standing on the Floating Bridge of Heaven and thrusting the Heavenly Jeweled Spear into the ocean. The dripping brine formed the island of Onogorojima to which they descended and married. There they discovered sexuality and Izanami then gave birth to the Japanese islands and many kami. When giving birth to the kami of fire she was so burned she died and went to Yomi (Land of Gloom). Izanagi followed her there and she told him to not look at her. However he did not do as she said and saw how disfigured her decaying body was. Izanami and the Eighty Ugly Females of Yomi then chased him until he was able to block the entrance to the cave leading to Yomi with a boulder. This is why the realms of the living and the dead are separated. Having been polluted by his encounter Izanagi then purified himself with the rite of mizogi and in the process produced Amaterasu Ōmikami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.5), Tsukuyomi no Mikoto and Susano no Mikoto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127).
Anime:
The story of Izanagi and Izanami in Yomi no Kuni is told in episode seven of Requiem from the Darkness.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.20
Bocking, Brian. Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.67
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.644

IZŌ see: Okada Izō

Izumi Kyōka 泉鏡花 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.644
Addendum: Two collections of his stories are avilable from University of Hawaii Press
Japanese Gothic Tales
In Light of Shadows: More Gothic Tales by Izumi Kyoka
Izumo 出雲 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.645
Izumo no Okuni 出雲のお国 OLD FORM 出雲のお國 (The Anime Companion 2 p.33)
Sources:
Leiter, Samuel. New Kabuki Encyclopedia p.231

IZUMO SHRINE see: Izumo Taisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52)

Izumo Taisha 出雲大社 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.52)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.646, 1371

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Created: October 31, 1998

Updated: September 30, 2012