Anime Companion Supplement - C

Ca - Cha - Chi - Cho - Ci - Co -

This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2

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See the regular entry pages for cross references between variant terms, differing spellings, English to Japanese terms and names:
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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
3. Japanese characters for entries
4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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For more information about this supplement see The Anime Companion Supplement main page. Additions are announced in the Anime Companion Supplement News page and in my Blog.

Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations

CABARET CLUB see: kyaba kura

CABARET GIRL see: hosutesu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47)

CABINET see: naikaku (Japanese Cabinet)

CAKE, STUFFED WAFER see: monaka (stuffed wafer cake)

CAKE, TRADITIONAL see: wagashi (traditional confections)

CALISTHENICS IN PARK see: rajio taisō (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)

CALISTHENICS, RADIO see: rajio taisō (The Anime Companion 2 p.72)

CALLBACK MOAT see: oiteke-bori (leave it behind)

CALLING CARDS see: meishi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)

Calpis カルピス (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.16)
I had to research this one in local markets.

CAMELLIAS see: tsubaki (The Anime Companion 2 p.107)

CAMPHOR TREE see: kusunoki (camphor tree)

CANDLE see: rōsoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.74)

CANDLE HOLDER, PORTABLE see: teshoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.100)

CANDY, TRADITIONAL see: wagashi (traditional confections)

CANDY STICK see: chitoseame (1000 year candy)


Canon, Inc. キヤノン (株)
A famous manufacturer of cameras and office related electronics. The Canon company was founded by Mitarai Takeshi, a gynecologist, and his friends in 1933 in the Roppongi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) area of Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). The original name for the company was the Precision Optical Instruments Laboratory. In 1934 the company developed the first Japanese 35 mm camera which they named after the bodhisattva (see: bosatsu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.13) Kannon, early logos include the older transliteration of Kwanon. In 1937 the company name changed to the Precision Optical Industry Company, In 1940 they developed an x-ray machine that helped greatly improved the diagnosis of TB in Japan (see: kekkaku The Anime Companion 2 p.44). The company nearly folded during the war as industrial production was focused on military matters. After the war the company struggled until they were able to persuade occupation officials to sell their cameras in military stores. This move helped the company when it later expanded sales to the United States as many returning servicemen had brought their cameras home with them. In 1947 the company changed it's name to the Canon Camera Company. During the Korean war sales increased as photographers realized that Japanese photographic equipment was as good as those made by the Germans. This lead to expansion with US and Europeans offices being established and a further expansion into office equipment. In 1969 with the company making a large amount of non-photography products the name was again changed to Canon Inc.
Yoriko uses a "Gunon" DSLR camera on the stakeout in File 8 of You're Under Arrest: Fast & Furious.
International Directory Of Company Histories v.79 p.89-95
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.162
Web Site: Canon Global

CAODONG see: Sōtōshū (Sōtō sect)

CAPE GUARD see: sakimori (border guard)

CAPSULE HOTEL see: kapuseru hoteru (capsule hotel)


hanafuda (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.39)

uta karuta (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.144)

CARD, SUMMERTIME GREETING CARD see: shochū-mimai-jō (summertime greeting card)

CARETAKER see: rusui (caretaker, keeper)

Carol キャロル
A rock band founded in 1972 that gained great popularity with bōsōzoku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.14), yankī (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146) and other deliquent youth. Their look included leather jackets and ducktail haircuts. In 1975 the band broke up when Yazawa Eikichi, the leader, went solo with his first album I Love You OK.
On the first page of chapter 3 in GTO The Early Years (v.1) we see that Onizuka's favorite music includes: "Yokohama Ginbae, Eikichi Yazawa, Carol .. other punked out biker bands".
Sato, Ikuya. Kamikaze Biker: Parody and Anomy in Affluent Japan p.98

CARP see: koi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72)

CARP STREAMERS see: koinobori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72)

CARROT see: ninjin (The Anime Companion 2 p.63)

CARRYING POLE see: tembimbō (carrying pole)

CARTOONIST see: mangaka

CASTELLAN see: jōdai (keeper of a castle)

CASTLE see: shiro (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.122)

CASTLE KEEPER see: rusui (caretaker, keeper)

CAT see:

bakeneko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.8)

neko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.92)

CATFISH see: namazu (catfish)


CATFISH PRINTS see: namazu-e (catfish picture)

CEDAR see: sugi (The Anime Companion 2 p.92)

CEMETERY, LARGE IN AKASAKA see: Aoyama Reien (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.6)

CENSOR see: metsuke (inspector, censor)

CENSORSHIP see: ken'etsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.66)

CERAMIC POT FOR COOKING see: donabe (The Anime Companion 2 p.17)

cha (tea) 茶 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.16)
Discover Japan v.1 p.160
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1534
chabudai ちゃぶだい or 卓袱台 OLD FORM 卓袱臺 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.31

CHA-DŌ see: cha-no-yu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17)

CHAIN AND SICKLE WEAPON see: kusari-gama (The Anime Companion 2 p.52)

CHAIN MAIL VEST see: kusari-katabira (The Anime Companion 2 p.51)

CHAIN WEAPON see: konpei (a type of chain weapon)

CHAIN WITH WEIGHTS WEAPON see: kusarifundō (The Anime Companion 2 p.52)

chalk marks and illegally parked cars (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17)
Living Japanese Style p.35

CHAMBER OF ELDERS (MEIJI PERIOD) see Genrōin (Chamber of Elders or Senate)

CHAMPLOO see: champurū

champurū チャンプルー
An dish from Okinawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.99) consisting of tōfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.100) stir fried with seasonal vegetables. When speaking of a particular type of champurū you would add the name of the other major ingredient as a prefix, such as "gōyā (bitter melon) champurū" In the Okinawan dialect the word champurū also means "mixed" in a general sense.
Anime and Manga:
Samurai Champloo is not a food dish made of stir fried samurai but a samurai tale all mixed up.
Ryukyuan Cuisine p.88
Samurai Champloo Roman Album p.48

CH'AN (SECT OF BUDDHISM) see: Zen (Buddhism) (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

chanbara (sword fight films) ちゃんばら
Sword fights in plays and films. During the silent era a dramatic fast paced style of music was played during the fight scenes of films. An onomatopoeia developed to approximate the sound the of the music, "chan-chan-bara-bara" which was shortened to chanbara. Chanbara then became the term used to describe such films which continue to be made today. While there is an overlap chanbara films are considered different from jidaigeki (period films) as chanbara films focus more on action than the historical setting so chanbara films are considered of inferior quality.
When "Samurai sword fight" is said by Izaac Titsingh in episode 6 of Samurai Champloo listen carefully and you will see he uses the word chanbara.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia 176
Richie, Donald. A Hundred Years of Japanese Film p.300

CHANGING CHILD'S NAME see: tsūshō (The Anime Companion 2 p.110)

cha-no-yu (tea ceremony) 茶の湯 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17)
A Look Into Japan p.30-32
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1535
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japanese Etiquette Today p.125

CHA-NO-YU SWEETS see: yōkan (The Anime Companion 2 p.117)

CH'AN See Zen (Buddhism) (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

chanpon チャンポン (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.18)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.32

CHANT see also: Namu Myōhōrengekyō

chara moe キャラ萌え
A term coming from otaku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.103) culture used to refer to the feelings of moe one has to a chara (character) in anime, manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80), video games (see: bideo gēmu) and other character sources. The feelings can also be focused on specific alluring characteristics such characters may have to the point of fetishism.
In episode 8 of Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi Sashi more than once expresses moe for a character.
Azuma Hiroki. Otaku: Japan's Database Animals p.36

hibachi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44)
shichirin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.117)

CHARCOAL BROILED EEL OR FISH see: kabayaki (charcoal broiled fish)

CHARRED NEWT see: Imori no kuroyaki (charred newt)

CHARISMA CLERK see: karisuma tenin (charisma clerk)

CHARRED PLANTS & ANIMALS see: kuroyaki (charred plants & animals)


ofuda (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.98)

omamori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.100)
charumera チャルメラ (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)
Hosking, Richard. Dictionary of Japanese Food p.118
Malm, William P. Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments p.271
chawan (small bowl) ちゃわん or 茶碗 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.18)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.177
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.32
Eating in Japan p.178
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.6
chawan mushi ちゃわんむし or 茶碗蒸し
A type of custard. The main ingredients are egg (tamago; The Anime Companion 2 p.97) and cooled dashi (The Anime Companion 2 p.15), it also has several other ingredients. The other ingredients often depend on the season and are items such as prawns, mitsuba, chicken, kamaboko, nama-shitake, seri, bamboo shoot (takenoko; The Anime Companion 2 p.96), yurine and ginkgo nuts (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35). A type of lidded china cup is used to both steam and serve chawan mushi. There is a variety made in shōjin ryōri (The Anime Companion 2 p.87) style vegetarian cooking where yamamotoimo or kabu (turnip) are used instead of egg. While it is often eaten with a spoon it is traditional to use chopsticks (hashi; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.42), then drinking any liquid left in the cup.
Chawan mushi is part of lunch on New Years in Doing Time (p.119)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.32
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.57, 172.
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.246-247
chazuke 茶漬け (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.18)
Eating in Japan p.84
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.177

CHEAP SWEET SHOP see: dagashiya (cheap sweet shop)/p>

CHECKPOINTS see: sekisho (barrier station)

CHEF FOR JAPANESE COOKING see: itamae (Japanese chef)

CHERRY BLOSSOM VIEWING see: hanami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.39)

CHERRY BLOSSOMS see: sakura (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110)

CHESS see: shōgi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123)

CHEST, WOODEN see: tansu (The Anime Companion 2 p.97)

CHI see ki (spirit, life force) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.67)

chi no wa 茅輪
A large ring made of twisted chigaya reeds. These rings can be quite large, sometimes over 12 ft in diameter, as they are set up on shrine (see: jinja, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54) grounds for people to walk through. The act of walking through a chi no wa exorcises sources of misfortune. These are usually set up for the Ōharae festival on June 30 and December 1, they are also seen at festivals at other times of the year.
In Shrine of the Morning Mist a chi no wa seen in the opening animation and used by Kurako to exorcise attacking spirits (ep.1 etc).
Basic Terms of Shintō (revised edition) p.5
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.16, 153
Chiba Ken 千葉県 OLD FORM 千葉縣 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.18)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.181
Web site:
Chiba Prefecture (official site)

CHIDAI see: tai (The Anime Companion 2 p.94)


CHIEF RETAINER see: karō (house elder)

chigai-dana (cloud shelves) 違棚 or 違い棚 (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)
Morse, Edward. Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings p.135-138

Chigasaki City 茅ヶ崎 [市] (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.184
chihō 地方
Regions or districts of Japan. This term can refer to a large or small area. There are eight major chihō consisting of the Chūbu chihō, Chūgoku, Hokkaidō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.46), Kantō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61), Kinki, Kyūshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78), Shikoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.84) and Tōhoku Chihō. With the exception of Hokkaidō each of the major eight chihō consists of between four and seven ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.44)
Japan A Regional Geography of an Island Nation p.27

chikan (molester) 痴漢
Molesters or gropers. This is a problem on crowded commuter trains and buses. Reports on arrests of chikan show up in the regular press on occasion. In the mid 1990s a magazine for chikan was launched titled Finger Press, this magazine no longer exists. There are even image clubs imēji kurabu called chikan densha (pervert train) that cater to chikan.
Aoi's very attractive style of dress and gentle feminine behavior in You're Under Arrest, starting with episode 5, comes from working as decoy in an anti-chikan police unit.
A pervert moves against Ayukawa on a train in Kimagure Orange Road (TV ep.24) .
Chikan is translated as "sexual offenders" in City Hunter 2 (ep.53).
Onizuka saves Fuyutsuki from a molester when they first meet in GTO (v. 2; ch. 8)
Schreiber, Mark editor. Tokyo Confidential p.99
Sinclair, Joan. Pink Box: Inside Japan’s Sex Clubs p.138-139, 186
chikan densha (pervert train) 痴漢電車
A pervert train or molester (chikan) train. A room inside an imēji kurabu (image club) designed to look like a train car. Groups of customers get to grope women workers who are dressed in a variety of outfits including school girl sailor suit (sailor fuku, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.108) uniforms and office ladies (see OL; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.100) for a set amount of time. Some chikan densha even have recordings of actual announcements.
Perhaps the ultimate chikan densha is the after hours special express train in Midnight Sleazy Train which, in the anime, is an actual train. By the way the Japanese title of that OVA is Saishuu Chikan Densha.
Sinclair, Joan. Pink Box: Inside Japan’s Sex Clubs p.136-139, 186
chikuwa (fish sausage) ちくわ or 竹輪 (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)
Eating in Japan p.155
Hosking, Richard. Dictionary of Japanese Food p.32
Outlook On Japan p.151

CHILD ATTENDANT see: kamuro (young female pages or attendants)

CHILDREN'S DAY see: Kodomo-no-Hi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72)

CHILD'S NAME (MALE) see: yōmyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)

CHILD'S PLATE see: okosama-ranchi (The Anime Companion 2 p.68)

CHILI SPICE MIX see: shichimi tōgarashi (The Anime Companion 2 p.83)

CHIMPIRA see: chinpira (punk, thug)

chindonya (music maker) ちんどん屋 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.19)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.491
Outlook on Japan p.83
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.192

CHINESE CABBAGE see: hakusai (Chinese cabbage)

CHINESE-LANTERN PLANT see: hōzuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.29)

CHINESE-LANTERN PLANT MARKET see: hōzuki ichi (The Anime Companion 2 p.29)

CHINESE MEDICINE see: kampō (Chinese Medicine)

CHINESE RESTAURANTS see: chūka ryōri-ya (The Anime Companion 2 p.14)

CHINESE SPOON see: renge (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)

CHINOWA see: chi no wa (large standing ring)

chinpira (punk, thug) ちんぴら or チンピラ
Sometimes transliterated as chimpira. An aggressive, young man, a punk. These are often high school aged or slightly older juvenile delinquents or low ranking yakuza muscle. Chinpira have a reputation for being violent and somewhat flashy. The word does not easily translate so one will find a variety of English words used depending on context.
Examples of the many ways chinpira is, sometimes questionably, translated into English include "yakuza" City Hunter 3 (ep.4); "punk" You're Under Arrest (ep.14); "hooligan" Salaryman Kintaro (ep.8); "gangster" Yawara! (ep 1).
Constantine, Peter. Japanese Street Slang p.21-22
chirinabe (hot pot dish) ちりなべ or ちり鍋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.33
Nagasawa Kimiko & Camy Condon. Eating Cheap in Japan 58, 148 (item)

CHIRIRENGE see: renge (The Anime Companion 2 p.73)

chisuji no ito (spider web) 千筋の糸
Spider web. A theatrical prop used in (The Anime Companion 2 p.63) and kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) performances to indicate the silk threads of a spider spirit used to snare it's opponent. The effect is dramatic with multiple threads fanning out over a target as they are tossed.
Such a spider web toss is done by Sasuke in Ranma 1/2 Anything Goes Martial Arts (ep.13)
The toss is used by Onsen Mark to catch students in Urusei Yatsura (ep 46 story 69)
A member of the handicraft club uses yarn to make the toss in Futaba-kun Change (vol. 2 chap: Futaba-kun Joins the Fight!!)
New Kabuki Encyclopedia p.61, 65
chitoseame (1000 year candy) 千歳飴
The name literally means 1000 year candy. This is made by pulling boiled glucose (mizu-ame) until slender sticks about a foot long are formed. These are usually red and white. It is commonly given to children, friends and relatives at shichi-go-san (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.117) after the purification ceremony. It is available both at shrines and stores. Often it is carried inside long flat white bags with decorations symbolizing luck and long life on the side and a handle at one end.
In IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park v.3 (ch.29) Takashi offers Makoto a stick of chitoseame.
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.135
Illustrated Japanese Family & Culture p.95
Illustrated Today’s Japan p.66
Japanese Etiquette: an introduction p.137
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.234

CHITSUKE-HATA see: nobori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.96)

CHIYODAJŌ see: Edojō (The Anime Companion 2 p.18)

Chiyoda-ku 千代田区 OLD FORM 千代田區 (The Anime Companion 2 p.13)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.194
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p. 20
Web Site:
Your Guide to Living in Chiyoda (official site)
chōchin (hanging paper lantern) ちょうちん or 提灯 OLD FORM 提燈 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.19)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.878-9
Outlook on Japan p.48
Choco Flake チョコフレーク (The Anime Companion 2 p.13)
A package bought in San Francisco.
choko (sake cup) ちょこ or 猪口 OLD FORM 猪口 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.19)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.92
Eating in Japan p.141
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.34
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.250, 373

CHOKYAKUSAN (LONG-LEG THING) see: sasumata (spear fork)

chōnaikai (neighborhood association) 町内会 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.19)
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japanese Etiquette Today p.44
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.195
chōnin (townsmen) 町人
Any inhabitant of a pre modern urban area who was not a noble, samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) or priest. The term originated in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) in the Heian period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44) to refer to the commoners who lived in the various chō of the capital. During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) chōnin resided in the various castle towns and other urban areas. The chōnin greatly contributed to popular culture and arts such as kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35), bunraku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15), shamisen (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.116) music, ukiyo-e, printed books etc. Chonin ranged from a few wealthy merchants to, the majority, poor laborers and artisans. The samurai administrators regulated the lives of the chōnin in attempts to curb conspicuous displays of wealth by the rich and to reduce social turmoil among the poor.
That Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) passed an ordinance forbidding farmers and chōnin from taking part in certain occupations, restricting them to samurai, as a means of reducing poverty among the warriors is mentioned in Satsuma Gishiden (v.1 p.53)
Chōnin are also commonly seen in cities in tales such as Lone Wolf and Cub and Samurai Executioner.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p. 196

CHOP see: hanko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.40)

CHOPSTICK REST see: hashioki (chopstick rest)

CHOPSTICKS see: hashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.42)

CHOPSTICKS, METAL see: hibashi (metal hashi)

Chōshi 銚子 [市] (The Anime Companion 2 p.13)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.197
Road Atlas Japan p.171
Web Sites:
City of Chōshi
chōshoku (breakfast) ちょうしょくor 朝食 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.20)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.392
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.34
Chōshū han 長州藩 (The Anime Companion 2 p.13)
Craig, Albert M. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration 20-21
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.197

CHŌZUYA see: temizuya (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.134)

CHRISTIAN SUPPRESSION, RELIGIOUS INQUISITION FOR see: shūmon aratame (religious inquisition)

CHRISTIANITY see: Kirisutokyō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.69)

CHRISTMAS see: Kurisumasu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.76)

CHRONICLE OF JAPAN see: Nihon Shoki (Chronicle of Japan)

CHRYSANTHEMUM see: kiku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.68)

Chūbu Chihō (Chūbu region) 中部地方
One of the eight regions (chihō) of Japan located in central Honshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47) this region consists of the ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.44) of Aichi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.3), Fukui, Gifu (The Anime Companion 2 p.23), Ishikawa, Nagano, Niigata, Shizuoka (The Anime Companion 2 p.86), Tōyama, and Yamanashi. The Chūbu chihō is subdivided into the three regions of the Hokuriku bordering the Nihonkai (Sea of Japan) (The Anime Companion 2 p.63), the Tōsan central highlands and the Tōkai along the Pacific coast. Most of this chihō consists of mountains with a plain on each coast. On the Sea of Japan coast there is the Niigata plain, a major rice producing area, and on the Pacific coast is the Nōbi plain which is today densely populated with a large industrial base.
The Chūbu region is mentioned in an announcement at the beginning of the first episode of Neon Genesis Evangelion.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p. 200

CHŪBU REGION see Chūbu Chihō

CHŪBURISODE see: furisode

Chūgoku Chihō 中国地方
One of the eight regions (chihō) of Japan located at the Western end of Honshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47). This region consists of the ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.44) of Hiroshima, Okayama (The Anime Companion 2 p.67), Shimane (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.118), Tottori, and Yamaguchi (The Anime Companion 2 p.115). This chihō is subdivided into the San'yō along the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai; The Anime Companion 2 p.82) and San'in along the Sea of Japan (Nihonkai; The Anime Companion 2 p.63). Most of the region is mountainous and the major industrial and population areas are all along the Inland Sea.
The Chūgoku chihō is threatened by a tsunami (The Anime Companion 2 p.109) in Blue Seed (ep. 24)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia 202

CHŪGOKU REGION see: Chūgoku chihō

chūhai チューハイ or 酎ハイ
A drink that is a mix of shōchū (The Anime Companion 2 p.86), mixed with fresh squeezed fruit or with a mixture of soda water and flavored syrup served over ice with a slice of fruit, commonly lemon or lime. You can also buy single servings of the drink ready made in cans and bottles. The name is a contraction of shōchū and highball.
Sakamoto orders "shochu and tonic with lemon" (listen and you will hear chūhai said) at an izakaya (The Anime Companion 2 p.33) in Maison Ikkoku (ep.78).
A "liquor connoisseur" attempts to prove that shōchū is inferior by showing how cheap shōchū is used to make chūhai, milk-chū and a passion fruit drink in Oishinbo A la Carte: Sake (p.35).
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.142
Kariya Tetsu (story) Hanasaki Akiora (art). Oishinbo A la Carte: Sake p.259
Tokyo Walking Around p.51
chūka ryōri-ya (Chinese restaurants) 中華料理屋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.14)
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi World Food Japan p.109
Nagasawa Kimiko & Camy Condon. Eating Cheap in Japan p.10

CHŪKA SEIRŌ see: seirō (The Anime Companion 2 p.81)

Chūō-ku 中央区
A ku of Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) located with Tōkyō Bay (Tōkyō Wan; The Anime Companion 2 p.105) to the South, Minato-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.56) and Chiyoda-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.13) to the East, Taitō-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.95) to the North, the Sumidagawa (The Anime Companion 2 p.93), Shibuya-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.82) and Kōtō-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.50) to the East. Included in Chūō-ku are the famous Tsukiji Fish Market (Tsukiji Shijō; The Anime Companion 2 p.109), Harumi, the Kachidokibashi drawbridge, Nihonbashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.94) and the Ginza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35). Chūō ku was formed in 1946 by merging two older ku, Nihombashi-ku and Kyobashi-ku.
Chūō-ku, Shinjuku-ku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.120), Bunkyō-ku and Setagaya-ku are among the places that loose their communications links in Patlabor 2.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.203
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas p.6-7
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.23
Web Site:
English Chuo City

CHŪSHINGURA see: Akō Jiken (Akō incident), Kanadehon Chūshingura (Treasury of Loyal Retainers)

CHŪZAISHO see: koban (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.71)

CICADA SOUND see: semi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.112)

CICI see: Marui

circle ("sākuru") サークル
A group of people who come together for non-work related projects. Among fans this can be creating a dōjinshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.23), making garage kits, or any other kind of activity that works well with a group. However circles are not limited to fandom. In schools circles may come together and form school clubs to carry on their activities. In the workplace co-workers may belong to a sports circle that practices regularly or even competes, some larger companies even provide facilities to aid sports activities. A wife of a salaryman (see: sararīman, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.111) in a company dorm may belong to a circle for ikebana (The Anime Companion 2 p.30), tea ceremony (see: see: cha-no-yu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.17) or other activity with other wives.
In the elevator scene in Otaku no Video Satou holds up a Captain Herlock sticker and explains she got it from a circle she knows people in.
Sasahara mentions being part of a circle and attending Comic Fest in Genshiken 2 (ep.6).
Clubs, referred to as circles in at least one sign, are recruiting after the entrance ceremony at Yawara's college in Yawara! (ep.38).
Galbraith, Patrick. The Otaku Encyclopedia p.44
Illustrated Salaryman in Japan p. 97, 104
Illustrated Today’s Japan p.143

CITY COMMISSIONER see: machi bugyō (city commissioner or magistrate)

CITY COMMISSIONER, EDO see: Edo machi bugyō (Edo city commissioner or magistrate)

CITY MAGISTRATE see: machi bugyō (city commissioner or magistrate)

CITY MAGISTRATE, EDO see: Edo machi bugyō (Edo city commissioner or magistrate)

CIVIL WAR PERIOD see: Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113)

CLAPPING HANDS see: kashiwade (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.63)

CLASS NUMBERS see: homurūmu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47)

CLEANING CLASS ROOMS see: School students cleaning school (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125)

CLEAR VIBRATOR see: sukeruton baibu (skeleton vibe, clear vibrator)

CLOSETS FOR STORING FUTON see: oshire (The Anime Companion 2 p.69)

CLOTH WRAPPER see: furoshiki (carrying cloth) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.31)

CLOTHING see: CLOTHING in the subject index.

CLOTHES TANGLER see: sodegarami (sleeve entangler)

CLOUD SHELVES see: chigai-dana (The Anime Companion 2 p.12)

COAT OF ARMS see: mon (family or organizational crest) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)

COCK FAIR see: tori no ichi (The Anime Companion 2 p.106)

COCKSUCKING see: ferachio (fellatio)

COFFEE SHOP see: kissaten (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.70)

COFFEEHOUSES see: kissaten (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.70)

COILED INCENSE see: katorisenkō

COLLECTION OF TEN THOUSAND LEAVES (MAN'YOSHŪ) see: Man'yōshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)

COLLUSIVE BIDDING see: dangō (collusive bidding, bid rigging)

COLORED CORDS ON ENVELOPE OR GIFT see: mizuhiki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)

COLORS, FIVE see: goshiki (five colors)

COMBINI see: konbini (convenience store)

COMBS see: kushi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77)

COMFORT WOMEN see: ianfu (comfort women)

COMIC BOOKS see: manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)

Comic June コミックJUNE (コミックジュネ)
June was the first Japanese bimonthly magazine specializing in male-male romance stories, manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80), and essays for women readers. June began publication in 1978 by the San Shuppan (Sun Publishing) group, a publisher specializing in sophisticated erotica. By 1995 the magazine had reached over 300 pages in a square back B5 format. Later the publisher began releasing Shōsetsu June (June Novels), devoted to prose stories; a new pretty boy photo magazine also called June, the original was renamed Comic June; and for older women the magazine Roman June which focussed on more realistic gay tales. The publisher also released cassette recordings, CDs and OVA anime. The popularity of the line led to the term june mono to refer to male male sex tales. The name June is pronounced "ju-neh", which is the way the Japanese commonly pronounce the French name Genet, as in Jean Genet the famous gay writer.
In Maison Ikkoku (ep.55) a group of high school girls are looking at a copy of "July" magazine while waiting for their train.
Kinsella, Sharon. "Japanese Subculture in the 1990s: Otaku and the Amateur Manga Movement." Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol.24, No.2 (Summer, 1998), pp.289-316
Lunsing, Wim. "Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography." Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 12 January 2006
McLelland, Mark J., Suganuma Katsuhiko and James Welker. eds. Queer Voices From Japan p.321
Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide p.414
Schodt, Frederik. Dreamland Japan p.120-123
Web Site:
ジュネット (株)ジュネット・耽美系総合サイト

COMIC MAGAZINES see: manga zasshi (manga magazines)

COMIC MARKET see: Komiketto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.73)

COMIC TORA NO ANA see: Tora no Ana

COMICBOOK ARTIST see: mangaka (manga artist)


COMING OF AGE DAY see: Seijin No Hi (The Anime Companion 2 p.80)

COMMA-SHAPED GEM see: magatama (curved beads) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)

COMMISSIONER see: bugyō (magistrate, commissioner)

COMMISSIONER OF FINANCE see: kanjō bugyō (commissioner of finance)

COMMISSIONER OF FIREARMS see: Teppō Bugyō (Commissioner of Firearms)

COMMISSIONER OF HIGHWAYS see: dōchū bugyō (commissioner of highways)

COMMISSIONER OF TEMPLES AND SHRINES see: jisha bugyō (commissioner of temples and shrines)

COMMODORE PERRY see: Perry, Matthew Calbraith (The Anime Companion 2 p.71)

COMMUNIST PARTY OF JAPAN see: Nihon Kyōsantō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.95)

COMMUNITY LEADER see: toshiyori (elders, community leaders)

COMPANION BOOKLET see otogi-zōshi

COMPUTER GAMES see: bideo gēmu (video games)

commuter train (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.20)
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1622
Japanese Family and Culture p.126, 128-9

COMMUTING see: tsūkin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.140)

COMPANY HOUSING see: shataku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.117)

COMPENSATED DATING see: enjo kōsai

CONBINI see: konbini (convenience store)

CONCEALED WEAPON see: kakushibuki (hidden weapon)

CONDOLENCE MONEY see: kōden (incense money)

CONDOMS see: kondomu (The Anime Companion 2 p.49)

CONFECTION, TRADITIONAL see: wagashi (traditional confections)

CONFECTIONARY see: kashiya (confectionary)

CONFUCIANISM see: Jukyō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56)

CONSTITUTION see: Nihonkoku Kenpō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.94)

CONSUMPTION (DISEASE) see: kekkaku (The Anime Companion 2 p.44)

CONVENIENCE STORE see: konbini (convenience store)

CONVEYOR BELT SUSHI BARS see: kaiten sushi

COOKIE, TRADITIONAL see: wagashi (traditional confections)

COOKING APRON see: kappogi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.62)


donabe (The Anime Companion 2 p.17)

kama (The Anime Companion 2 p.38)

nabe (The Anime Companion 2 p.59)

COOKING "SAKE" see: mirin

CORD TO TIE UP SLEEVES see: tasuki (cord to tie sleeves)

CORN ON THE COB see: tōmorokoshi (The Anime Companion 2 p.105)

CORPSE, LAYING OUT A see: kitamakura (pillow to the North)

CORPSE WITH TRIANGLE ON HEAD see: hitaikakushi (triangle on forehead)

COSPLAY see: kosupure (The Anime Companion 2 p.50)

COSTUME PLAY see: kosupure (The Anime Companion 2 p.50)

COUPLES CAFE see: kappuru kissa

COUPONS FOR DISCOUNT see: waribiki tiketto (discount ticket)

COURTESAN, DIALECT OF see: kuruwa kotoba


COW OR OX TOY, BOBBING see: akabeko (The Anime Companion 2 p.4)

COWHERD AND WEAVER STORY see: Tanabata (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.133)

CRABS WITH FACE PATTERNS see: heikegani (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44)

CRACKERS, RICE see: senbei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113)

CRAM SCHOOLS see: yobikō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.147)

CRANE GAME see: UFO Catcher (crane game)

Crane Wife (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.20)
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.192

CRANES see: tsuru (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.141)

CRANES, A THOUSAND see: senbazuru (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113)

Cream Lemon くりいむレモン
The series title for several anime OVA released by the company Fairy Dust over several years, starting in the mid 1980s and ending in the early 1990s. The early Cream Lemon titles were among the very first erotic anime ever made. Some of the stories had elements of lolicon (rorikon; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.107) with tales of teen sexual awakening. The stories range from slow paced dramatic works to slapstick comedy and science fiction parodies. Most of the titles are single stories some, like the Ami and Escalation series, spanned several episodes.
In Megazone 23 (ep.1) the phrase Cream Lemon shows up on a computer screen.
Onizuka finds that the new homeroom teacher is into little girls and plants related items in his locker, including a Cream Lemon poster. GTO The Early Years (v.5 ch.78)
In Cannon God Exaxxion (v.2 p.179) Hosuke explains the name of the Exaxxion saying "All the best giant robots have a name ending in "ON." Then he proceeds to list them "Ideon, Evangelion, Garon, Voltron, Mekton, Rahxephon, Iron, Doremon, Cream Lemon.."
Clements, Jonathan & Helen McCarthy. The Anime Encyclopedia: Revised and Expanded Edition p.115-116
McCarthy, Helen & Jonathan Clements. The Erotic Anime Movie Guide p.42-51
Smet, Steven. "Cream Lemon: An Almost Complete Overview". JAMM! Japanese Anime and Manga Magazine! no.4 p.38-46 (1995)
Web Site:
くりいむレモン [official site]

CREMATION see: kasō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.64)

CREST see: mon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)

CRIME, ORGANIZED see: yakuza (gangster) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)

CROQUETTE see: korokke (The Anime Companion 2 p.50)

CROSS DRESSING "HOSTESSES" see: nyū hāfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.64)

CROSSROADS DIETY see: dōsojin/A>

CROW see: karasu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.62)

CRUSHING THE EYES see: metsubushi (sight remover)

CRYPTOMERIA see: sugi (The Anime Companion 2 p.92)

CUCUMBERS see: kyūri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)

CULTURAL FESTIVAL see: bunkasai (cultural festival)

CURRY see: karē (The Anime Companion 2 p.41)

CURRY RICE see: karē raisu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.62)

CURSE see: tatari (curse or spiritual retribution)

CURTAIN see: noren (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.96)

CURTAIN, RED AND WHITE CURTAIN see: kō-haku-no-manmaku (red and white curtain)

CUSHIONS TO SIT ON see: zabuton (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.150)



CUTTLEFISH see: ika (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48)

CYBER SCHOOL see: Dennō Gakuen


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Created: October 31, 1998

Updated: July 25, 2020