Anime Companion Supplement - M


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This series of pages is a supplement to two of my books The Anime Companion and The Anime Companion 2.

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Special Supplement: Rurouni Kenshin OVAs

Each Supplement page consists of:
1. A list of entries in the books with page numbers.
2. New entries for items not found in the books.
3. Japanese characters for entries
4. Secondary sources used to find information for each entry.
5. Additional information for some entries.
6. Links to select Internet resources related to the entries.

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For more information about this supplement see The Anime Companion Supplement main page. Additions are announced in the Anime Companion Supplement News page and in my Blog.

Hyphenated Japanese terms are listed as single words.

The inclusion of an anime or manga title in these entries is not a recommendation of that title, see my Recommended Anime and Manga page for a list of my recommendations


mabōdofu 麻婆豆腐
A Chinese dish of tōfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.100) squares in a reddish sauce. In Japan the sauce is often made with ground pork, negi (The Anime Companion 2 p.61), ginger, sesame seed oil and shōyu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124)
Anime:
Mabōdofu base is one of the packaged items bought at the store in the second Urusei Yatsura movie Beautiful Dreamer.
Sources:
Nagasawa Kimiko & Camy Condon. Eating Cheap in Japan p.64, 65, 170 (item)

MACHI BUGYŌ see also: Edo machi bugyō (Edo city commissioner or magistrate)

machi bugyō (city commissioner or magistrate) 町奉行
A position from the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) of city officials chosen to handle the affairs of commoners (chōnin) and rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106). The term is variously translated as city magistrate, magistrate, and commissioner. They handled administrative matters such as supervising police, judicial affairs, fire fighting and others. This office was found in larger cities and towns under the direct control of the bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) such as Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18), Ōsaka (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.102), Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77), Shizuoka, Nara (The Anime Companion 2 p.61), Nikko and Nagasaki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90). daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) would assign them to administer their castle town, and occasionally other large towns. The term is often used to refer specifically to the Edo machi bugyō.
Manga:
The letters regularly sent to the go-rōju by the Ōsaka and Kyōto machi-bugyō is mentioned in Lone Wolf and Cub (v. 24 p.168).
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.24
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.174
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.905
Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Warlords p.85
machi-bugyōsho (town magistrate office) 町奉行所
The offices of a machi bugyō. In Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) the Northern (kita) and Southern (minami) machi bugyō each had separate residences, the names coming from where they usually were in relation to each other. It was common for the torimono sandōgu (see: sasumata (spear fork), sodegarami (sleeve entangler) and tsukubo (push pole) to be displayed in front of the machi-bugyōsho.
Anime:
The South Magistrate's office is in Ghost Slayers Ayashi (ep.3).
Manga:
The "Southern Town Commissioner's office" is seen in Samurai Executioner (v.7 p.195) and Lone Wolf and Cub (v. 28 p.132).
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.93
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.27
machiai shitsu (waiting room) 待合室
A waiting room, these can be at the doctor, train station or anywhere such would be needed. In many fūzoku (sex industry) businesses these are where one chooses the girl and services one wants. Staff will make recommendations if one does not know the girls, however such may not be the most desirable choices. In the fūzoku such rooms often have pictures of available girls, a video of short interviews or even a one way mirror into a room where the girls wait for their next customers. Of course not all such businesses provide girls; some also exist for gay clients.
Manga:
Makoto impatiently waits in a machiai shitsu for his meeting with Chiaki in the imēji kurabu (image club) where she works in IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park (p.84-5)
Sources:
Constantine, Peter. Japan's Sex Trade p.60
Sinclair, Joan. Pink Box: Inside Japan’s Sex Clubs p.187
Takahashi Morio. Pocket Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary p.631
machi-doshiyori (town elder, alderman) 町年寄
Town elders, that is elders, toshiyori, in urban settings who played an administrative role in governing. The position was hereditary and usually filled by commoners and they reported to the machi bugyō. For almost all of the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the city of Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18) had three families who held this position, the Naraya, Taruya and Kitamura.
Manga:
Ōgami Itto approaches the machi-doshiyori Taruya Tōemon to meet with him on the possibility of being in the procession for the Sannō Festival in Lone Wolf and Cub (v.26 p.141).
Sources:
Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo p.89
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.8
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.174, 297

MADAI see: tai (The Anime Companion 2 p.94)

Maebashi 前橋 [市] (The Anime Companion 2 p.54)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.906
magatama (curved beads) 勾玉 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.102

MAGAZINES FOR YOUNG MEN see: seinenshi

MAGIC KINGDOM see: Tōkyō Dizunīrando (The Anime Companion 2 p.104)

MAGIC SYLLABLES see: kuji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.75)

MAGICAL GIRL see mahō shōjo (magical girl)

MAGISTRATE see: bugyō (magistrate, commissioner)

MAGISTRATE, CITY see: Edo machi bugyō (Edo city commissioner or magistrate)

MAGISTRATE, CITY see: machi bugyō (city commissioner or magistrate)

MAGISTRATE OF FINANCE see: kanjō bugyō (commissioner of finance)

MAGISTRATES ASSISTANTS see: yoriki (assistant magistrate)

MA-HAZE see: haze (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.43)

MAH-JONGG see: mājan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)

mahō shōjo (magical girl) 魔法少女
A phrase that translates to "magical girl." Many manga and anime with such characters exist; some of the earliest anime TV shows with mahō shōjo characters were broadcast in the 1960s. In some cases the girl has special powers she uses on others, in some cases she uses her power to change herself, many shows do both. A common motif is for the girl to have a special object that is used for self transformation, usually into an older version of herself.
Anime and Manga:
In the English speaking world the most famous such series is Sailor Moon, another well known one is Magic Knight Rayearth.
Anime:
In episode two of Cardcaptor Sakura Tomoyo says "Trademark poses & spells are basic parts of being a magical girl", listen and you can hear the phrase Mahō Shōjo.
Other examples include Pretty Sammy, Maho Tsukai Tai! and Fancy Lala.
Sources:
Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide p.199

MAID see: meido or mēdo (maid)

MAID CAFE see: Meido kafe

MAIJDARI see: Miroku (Maitreya)

maiko (apprentice geisha) 舞子 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.446, 909
Must-See in Kyōto p.62, p.180

MALE GEISHA see: hōkan (male geisha)

MAIN SHRINE see: honden (main shrine)

MAITREYA see: Miroku (Maitreya)

mājan (mah-jongg) 麻雀 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78)
Sources:
Japanese Family and Culture p.143
Today's Japan p.87
A Look Into Japan p.135
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.909
makisu (rolling mat) まきすor 巻きす
A small mat made of strips of bamboo held together by cotton thread. Sometimes these are called sudare. These mats are used to make makizushi or other rolled foods. There are three common sizes the largest being the size of an entire sheet of nori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.97), the smallest a half sheet of nori and the oni sudare made of thicker bamboo strips used for rolled omelets.
Manga:
We see Kyoko make makizushi with a makisu in Maison Ikkoku (v7 p.174, v.8 p.78 in the new edition)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.90
Omae Kinjiro and Tachibana Yuzuru. The Book of Sushi p.77
Tsuda Nobuko. Sushi Made Easy p.43
makizushi まきずしor 巻き鮨
Rolled sushi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.128). These are commonly made by placing a sheet of nori (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.97) on a makisu (rolling mat), adding sushi rice and other fillings then tightly rolling them into a cylinder and cutting them into short segments. A thick roll with many ingredients is called a futomakizushi, a thin roll with a minimum of fillings is called a hosomakizushi. Some types of makizushi do not use nori on the outside, instead the ingredients are presented wrapped in rice on the outside, this is called kawari futomakizushi. There are many varieties of makizushi in pleasurable patterns.
Anime:
Kyoko brings some uncut kanpyōmaki, a type of makizushi, to Soichiro's grave in Maison Ikkoku (ep.52)
Manga:
We see Akira punished in a slapstick manner by being hit with a giant uncut makizushi in Black Jack (v.1 p.110)
We see Kyoko make makizushi with a makisu in Maison Ikkoku (v7 p.174; v.8 p.78 in the new edition)
Sources:
Eating in Japan p.26
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.90
Tsuda Nobuko. Sushi Made Easy p.69-80
Makudonarudo (McDonald's) マクドナルド (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.79)
Sources:
Discover Japan v.2 p.54
makura (pillow) 枕 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.79)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1205

MALE BOYS LOVE/YAOI fans see: fudanshi (rotten man) 腐男子

MALE BROTHEL see: kagemajaya (kagema tea house)

MALE CHILD'S NAME see: yōmyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.118)

MALE HOMOSEXUAL (DEROGATORY) see: okama (The Anime Companion 2 p.67)

MALE PROSTITUTE see: kagema (a type of male prostitute)

MALE YAOI/BL fans see: fudanshi (rotten man) 腐男子

MAME-MAKI see: Setsubun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.116)

MAMUSHI see: unagi (eel) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.144)

MAMUSHI FAITO see: mamushi-zake (snake in drink)

mamushi-zake (snake in drink) まむし酒
This is what it sounds like mamushi; (pit viper) in sake (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109). Mamushi-zake is an old folk remedy made by soaking a mamushi in sake or other alcoholic beverage for about a year. A tradition has it that one snake is good for three batches. This beverage is used as a pick me up and is credited with increasing male sexual stamina. Sometimes this drink is called mamushi faito.
Anime:
When Faye shows up for the first time we see a snake in a jar at the herbalist's Cowboy Bebop (ep.3)
Bottles of "Black Viper" stamina drinks are in the refrigerator at the love hotel (rabu hoteru; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.105) in Patlabor New Files (Ep 12)
Manga:
On page 24 of volume 33 of Ranma 1/2 we see a boyfriend hungry ghost that has taken the form of Ranma chan serve Mr Tendo breakfast of omelet rice (omuraisu; The Anime Companion 2 p.68) dressed in nothing but a kitchen apron while holding a bottle labeled mamushi-zake, the label translated in the English version as 'aphrodisiac'.
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Sex and the Japanese p.144
Waycott, Agness. Sado: Japan’s Island in Exile p.105

MADE OBJECT WITH A SPIRIT see: tsukumogami (spirit of a made object)

MANBA see: ganguro (black face)

MANDARA SECT ("MANDALA SECT") see: Shingonshū (Shingon sect of Buddhism)

MANDARIN ORANGE see: mikan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)

manekineko ("beckoning cat") 招き猫 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.79)
Sources:
A Look Into Japan p.102-3
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.917
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.24

MANETE MIMASU YOTSUYA KIKIGAKI see: Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (Ghost Story of Tōkaidō Yotsuya)

manga (Japanese comic book) 漫画 or まんが or マンガ (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)
Sources:
Today's Japan p.117
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.214-217
Schodt, Frederik. Dreamland Japan p.95

MANGA ARTIST see: mangaka

MANGA BOOK FORM see: tankōbon (a separate book volume) 単行本

MANGA CAFE see: manga kissa (manga cafe)

manga kissa (manga cafe) 漫画喫茶 or マンガ喫茶
Manga cafes. Manga kissa are coffee shops (see: kissaten, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.70) where you pay a fee to sit in very comfortable chairs and read manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80) from the shop's collection. There are two basic types. One where you can order coffee and food and spend an hour or so reading manga. The other you pay an hourly fee, many of which allow you to bring in outside food and drinks, some provide coffee as part of the service at no extra charge. Most of the hourly fee shops also have internet access, some even have CD players, DVD players with small screens etc. Manga kissa came into existence in the late 1990s, by 1999 Tokyo had roughly 300 such businesses. As manga kissa are often open 24 hours some people who miss the last train of the day choose to sleep in them for a set fee as an alternative to getting a hotel room, these may even offer showers as well as sell tooth brushes and underwear.
Manga:
Misaki and Satou go to a manga cafe in Welcome to the NHK (v.1 p.162-167).
In Genshiken (v.2 p.62) in order to be able to catch the first train to "Comic Fest" the club spends the night reading manga in a manga cafe.
Sources:
Ito Kinko. "Manga in Japanese History" in MacWilliams, Mark W. ed. Japanese Visual Culture p.45-46.
Macias, Patrick and Machiyama Tomohiro. Cruising the Anime City p.26-27.

MANGA MAGAZINES see: manga zasshi (manga magazines)

MANGA RENTAL SHOPS see: kashihonya

MANGA WRITER see: gensakusha

manga zasshi (manga magazines) 漫画雑誌
Magazines largely, or exclusively, devoted to publishing Japanese comics (see: manga, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80), either stand alone stories or serialized tales. Such magazines have a variety of publishing schedules most being weekly, biweekly or monthly. Such magazines began in the 1950s with popular titles such as Shōnen sandē (Shōnen Sunday) and Shōnen magajin (Shōnen Magazine). The larger magazines may have as many as 400 pages printed on inexpensive paper, squarebound and intended to be read and discarded as the most popular stores will later be collected into tankōbon (a separate book volume). The original magazines were mainly aimed at children, however over time newer magazines explored other audiences and today there are manga zasshi for all age groups, demographics and niche markets. Sometimes the term is contracted to manga-shi. Examples of manga zasshi which non-Japanese fans are likely to have heard of include: Afternoon, Be-Love, Big Comics, Comic June, CoroCoro Comic, Garo, Margaret, Weekly Shōnen Jump, Weekly Young Jump, and Young Animal.
Manga:
Some manga zasshi that have been published in English outside Japan include: MixxZine, PULP, Raijin, Shojo Beat, Shonen Jump, Super Manga Blast! and Yen Plus.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.214
mangaka (manga artist) 漫画家
A manga (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80) artist, either a man or a woman, the word is gender neutral. Sometimes they only do the artwork using a story written by a gensakusha. At other times they both write and draw the story. Many mangaka work with assistants who handle inking, running errands, cooking, research and other secondary work.
Anime:
The ghost of a frustrated mangaka causes trouble in Haunted Junction (ep.5)
Manga:
Izumi, a major character in Marionette Generation, is a mangaka. .
Sources:
Amano Masanao. Manga Design p.570
Comics Journal #269 July 2005 p.21
Lehmann, Timothy R. Manga: Masters of the Art p.247

MANGA-SHI see: manga zasshi (manga magazines)

manji (swastika)
A design known in the West as the swastika. In Japan this is a common Buddhist (Bukkyō; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) symbol originating in ancient India. The manji is depicted in both a clockwise and counter clockwise form. One sometimes sees it on maps to indicate the location of Buddhist temples and monasteries.
Anime:
In episode 14 of the Rurouni Kenshin TV series we see a manji on the Hishimanji garb.
A manji mon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89) is formed from scythes on Sakaki Shuranosuke's kimono in Sword for Truth
Sources:
Japanese English Buddhist Dictionary p.194.
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.22, 25.
manjū (bun, dumpling) 饅頭 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)
Sources:
Eating in Japan p.129
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.918
Japanese Inn & Travel p.137

MANJUSRI BODHISATTVA see: Monju (Manjusri)

MANY EYES see: mokumokuren

Man'yōshū 万葉集 OLD FORM 萬葉集 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.919

MAPLES see: kaede and momiji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.58)

MAPOTOFU see: mabōdofu

MARATHON MONKS see: kaihōgyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.36)

MARBLES, FLAT see: ohajiki (The Anime Companion 2 p.66)

Märchen (magical folk tale) メルヘン or メルヒェン (The Anime Companion 2 p.54)
Sources:
Encyclopaedia Britannica v.7 p. 825 (1990)
marebito 客人
Divine visitors who come from Tokoyo no Kuni (Eternal Land), a land beyond the sea, to bring blessings especially at the New Year. The word can be translated literally as "guests". The folklorist Orikuchi Shinobu wrote that marebito were deified ancestral spirits dressed as if on a journey and that travelers such as monks, artists, ascetics etc. would be respected by villagers as possible marebito in disguise. Deities who have been considered marebito at various times in Japanese history include the Buddha, Ebisu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) and Daikokuten (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.21).
Manga:
In Ghost Hunt (v.9 p.78) marebito legends seem to play a role in a very dangerous case.
Sources:
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.115.
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.923.
Picken, Stuart D.B. Essentials of Shintō p.17.
Maria Kannon マリア観音
Until the late 19th century all Christians (see: Kirisutokyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.69) in Japan were descended from 16th century converts to Roman Catholicism. With Christianity outlawed in the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) statues of Kannon were sometimes used to represent the virgin Mary by hidden Christians or statues of Mary were made to resemble those of Kannon. Some of the statues include an infant cradled in the arms in a form of Kannon holding a child. Many of the Kannon statues used in this way which have survived are of Chinese origin. Most of the Maria Kannon statues from the Edo Period are from the Nagasaki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90) area where Chinese ships were allowed to dock.
Manga:
In Lone Wolf and Cub (v.14 p.277) An official announcing shūmon aratame (religious inquisition) arrests a family of hidden Christians, among the evidence is a statue of Maria Kannon.
Sources:
Discover Japan v.1 p.190
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.178
Joya Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.595
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai and the Sacred p.117
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.321

MARICI see: Marishiten (Buddhist deity)

Marishiten (Buddhist deity) 摩利支天
The Indian sun goddess Marici who is also associated with the wind and popularly considered the daughter of Indra. Often images show her on the back of a wild boar (see: inoshishi, The Anime Companion 2 p.32) with either one face and two arms or three faces and six arms. In the early 6th century Marishiten became a Buddhist (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) deity in China, in time being adopted by military Taoist sects. Marishiten texts were available in Japan by the 8th century where she became popular with warriors (see: bushi, The Anime Companion 2 p.11). She protects from suffering and debtors from criticism, even when deserved. In Japan she is held to be invisible and to precede the sun, there is an esoteric Buddhist (see: mikkyō, The Anime Companion 2 p.56) ritual for invisibility associated with her. In Japan she is still strongly associated with martial arts and sumō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127) rikishi have a special reverence for her. Marishiten is also associated with agriculture in Japan.
Anime:
In Ghost Hunt that Ayako practices Ryōbu Shintō (Dual Shintō) 両部神道 is apparent in episodes 2 and 22 when she includes Marishiten in her norito.
Sources:
Hall, David A. "Marishiten Buddhist Influences on Combative Behavior" in Skoss, Diane, ed. Keiko Shokon: Classical Warrior Traditions of Japan volume 3 p.87-119.
Inagaki Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.204.
Matsunami Kodo. Essentials of Buddhist Images p.109.

MARITIME SELF DEFENSE FORCE see: Jieitai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.53)

MAROHOSHI see: karakuri jitte

MARRIAGE see: kon'in (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.74)

MARRIAGE CEREMONY see: shinzen kekkon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121)

MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE see: kōnin todoke (Notice of Marriage)

MARSH REED SCREEN see: yoshizu (The Anime Companion 2 p.119)

MARTIAL ARTS TRAINING HALL see: dōjō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.23)

maru 丸 (The Anime Companion 2 p.54)
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p.322
Joya, Mock. Things Japanese p.718
Plutschow, Herbert E. Japan's Name Culture p.12-13
Marubashi Chūya 丸橋忠弥
(?-1651) A rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106) who was one of the major participants behind the plot, known the Keian Jiken, led by Yui Shōsetsu. He taught lance fighting techniques in a dōjō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.23) he ran in Hongō close to Suidōbashi, a slope in that area came to be called Chūyazaka. Depending on the story his boasting, or fevered ramblings, led to the plot being discovered, his arrest and execution; which took place in Suzugamori. A very unreliable account has Chūya being captured in Ōbishiya, a Yoshiwara brothel, by Shōji Jisaburō, the son of Shōji Jin'emon. Another account has him being caught at his home in Ochanomizu. In popular literature Shōsetsu and Chūya came to be cast as heroes, most notably the jidaimono kabuki (The Anime Companion 2 p.35) play Keian Taiheiki, also known as Kusu no Kiryū Hanami no Makubari, Hanashōbu Keikan Jikki and simply Marubashi Chūya. Of course names and the setting were changed in accordance with Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) regulations against plays set in contemporary times.
Manga:
In Samurai Executioner (v.5 p.234) the police raid that captured Marubashi Chūya is dramatized.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.768, 927
Leiter, Samuel. New Kabuki Encyclopedia p.308
Seigle, Cecilia Segawa. Yoshiwara p.55-56, 247 n. 4
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.353, 397
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.218
Marui 丸井
A famous chain of department stores and related businesses headquartered in Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104). The company was incorporated in 1937, established a system of installment payments and was the first Japanese company to offer credit cards to its customers. The majority of the stores are in Tokyo and nearby cities. Marui buildings can be identified by their distinctive logo which resembles O|O|. The O in the logo is actually a circle and can be pronounced as maru.
Anime:
A common way to represent the logo of the company without actually using it is to represent it as CICI. This is seen in several titles such as The Tales Trilogy: Tales of Misbehavior (ep.1 "Lusty Long Distance Commute"), City Hunter: The Motion Picture, Fushigi Yūgi (ep.51), and Maison Ikkoku (ep.40)
Another alternative representation is QIQI as seen in GTO (ep.20).
Manga:
The logo is seen in Video Girl Ai (v.14 p.34) and, for the Shibuya-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.82) store, in Silent Möbius (v. 4 p. 139)
Makoto meets up with his friends behind the Ikebukuro Marui store in IWGP: Ikebukuro West Gate Park (v.1 p.138)
Marui is mentioned by a girl at school in GTO (v.9 ep.36)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.927
Annual Report 2004
Web Site:
MARUIONE.JP [online store]

MASAKADO see Taira no Masakado (The Anime Companion 2 p.95)

MASAKADO KUBIZUKA see: masakado-zuka

Masakado-Zuka (Masakado’s Mound) 将門塚 FORMAL 將門塚 (The Anime Companion 2 p.55)
Sources:
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then p.41-42
Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規
1867-1902 A poet who championed changes in the writing of the haiku and tanka poetic forms. He was born into a minor samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110) family of Matsuyama. He moved to Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) in 1883 to study philosophy and politics. There he was exposed to literature, dropped out of Tōkyō University (Tōkyō Daigaku; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.138) and devoted the rest of his life to poetry. He wrote a series of articles criticizing the sterile formalism that had become common in Japanese poetry calling for reforms to enliven the art. As part of this he helped start the magazine Hototogisu. In 1895, while reporting as a war correspondent in China he realized his TB (kekkaku; The Anime Companion 2 p.44) had reached a terminal stage. he spent most of the rest of his life bedridden. He is considered one of the four great haiku poets of Japan along with Basho (The Anime Companion 2 p.8), Yosa Buson and Kobayashi Issa (The Anime Companion 2 p.47)
Manga:
Masaoka Shiki, and Hototogisu, are mentiond in The Times of Botchan (v.1 p. 18)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.929

MASK OF FUNNY FACED MAN see: Hyottoko

MASK, WHITE SQUARE see: zōmen (The Anime Companion 2 p.123)

MASKS, WEARING SURGICAL MASKS IN PUBLIC see: Surgical Masks Worn In Public (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.127)

MASSAGE PARLORS see: sōpurando (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125)

MASTERLESS SAMURAI see: rōnin (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.106)

MASTURBATION SLEEVE see: onahōru

masu (box measure) ます or 枡 or 升 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)
Sources:
Condon, Jack and Camy Condon. The Simple Pleasures of Japan p.18
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.91
Eating in Japan p.141

MASUDA SHIRŌ TOKISADA see: Amakusa Shirō (The Anime Companion 2 p.5)

Masuya 枡屋 (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Ryoma: Life of a Renaissance Samurai. p.213, 222-225.

MAT SERVICE see: matto sābisu (mat service)

MATAMONO see: baishin (vassal's vassal)

MATCH SELLING GIRLS see: matchi uri no shōjo (match selling girls)

matchi uri no shōjo (match selling girls) マツチ売りの少女
While the term refers to to girls simply selling matches it also refers to a form of sex trade. This is practiced in dim light where the customer is sold a match, the seller drops her panties and lifts her skirts and the customer strikes the match and gets to peek until the flame goes out, at which point they can buy another match. This was practiced by some impoverished women after W.W.II as a way of obtaining money without having to resort to prostitution.
Anime:
In The Tales Trilogy: Tales of Misbehavior (ep.2 "The Match Vendor") Igarashi spends his entire six month bonus on buying matches from a young match girl in a sailor fuku (sailor suit) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.108)
Sources:
Constantine, Peter. Japan's Sex Trade p.33-34

MATCHMAKING PUB see: omiai pub (matchmaking pub)

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH HANDBOOK see: Boshi Kenkō Techō (Maternal and Child Health Handbook)

matoi (banner, standard) 纒 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)
Sources:
A Look Into Tokyo p.68
Matsuda Seiko 松田聖子
1962- Real name Kamachi Noriko (蒲池 法子), originally from a typical middle class family in Kurume in Fukuoka ken. As a middle school student she loved to practice song and dance numbers with her friends. In 1978 she came in first at the CBS-Sony and Shueisha sponsored "Miss Seventeen Love Idol Attack Contest". Starting in 1980 she became an idol singer (see: aidoru, (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.3) who dominated the charts with hit after hit with 24 number one singles in a row starting with her very first song "Hadashi no Kisetsu" ("Barefoot Season"). At a time of heavy control of a star's looks by their agencies she insisted on choosing her own style and going her own way, including maintaining her career after her 1985 marriage to Kanda Masaki. She cultivated a sweet young idol look for many years after her youth ended. After an attempt to break into the US market she returned to Japan with a new image of a strong woman. Her career was one peppered with tabloid and media scandals of her many affairs and yet she continued to draw crowds to her concerts. In February 1995 she became the first Japanese performer to make the cover of Billboard Magazine. In 1997 she and her husband finally divorced apparently over her insistence on staying in the US to continue to attempt to break into that market.
Manga:
In the GTO manga there are two references to Matsuda Seiko, in the first (v.9 ch.69) we hear three girls, who are planning to do Onizuka in, mention her name. Later (v.13 ch.105) in Okinawa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.99) we see a highly decorated van with her portrait air brushed on it.
Sources:
Ashcraft, Brian and Ueda Shoko. Japanese Schoolgirl Confidential p.42
Galbraith, Patrick. The Otaku Encyclopedia p.144
Schilling, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Japanese Pop Culture p.113-123
Web Site:
松田聖子 Seiko Matsuda
Matsudaira Hirotada 松平広忠
1526-49 Commonly referred to as Tokugawa Hirotada, he was head of the Matsudaira family and the father of Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102). Hirotada attempted to forge an alliance with Imagawa Yoshimoto against Oda Nobuhide. To seal the alliance he sent his son to Sumpu for the Imagawa to hold as a hostage, but Ieyasu was intercepted by Oda clan vassals which prevented him from attacking. Hirotada died in 1549 not long after Yoshimoto succeeded in defeating Noduhide.
Manga:
That Tokugawa Hirotada was stabbed in the crotch by a Muramasa sword is mentioned in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.23)
Sources:
Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Commanders (1) 940-1576 p.50
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p.85

MATSUDAIRA IEYASU see: Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102)

MATSUDAIRA TAKECHIYO see: Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102)

MATSUGAOKA GOSHO see: Tōkeiji

MATSUGAOKA TŌKEIJI see: Tōkeiji

MATSUO BASHŌ see: Bashō (The Anime Companion 2 p.8)

MATSUDAIRA MOTOYASU See Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102)

MATSURI AND NENCHŪ GYŌJI, BY NAME see:

Bon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.12)

Gion Matsuri (The Anime Companion 2 p.23)

Hina Matsuri (doll festival) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.45)

Kodomo-no-Hi (Boy's Day, Children's Day) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.72)

Kurisumasu (Christmas) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.76)

Nebuta Matsuri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.92)

Sei-Barentain-no-shukujitsu (Saint Valentine's Day) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.112)

Setsubun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.116)

Shichi-go-san (7-5-3 festival) (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.117)

Tanabata (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.133)

MATSURI see also: seasonal symbols

matsuri to nenchū gyōji (festivals and annual events) 祭と年中行事 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.361, 1072
matsutake 松茸
Tricholoma matsutake, a type of mushroom which is highly valued by connoisseurs and rather expensive. Matsutake must be collected in the wild in red pine forests in the autumn as no one has developed a technique for growing them. Many matsutake sold in Japan are imported from Korea. The best are those with the cap just starting to open up. Ways of preparing it are in rice, in dobinmushi soup, and grilled (yakimono) while wrapped in foil. A traditional way of preparing matsutake is on a hot stone in a shallow ceramic pot with the lid on, this method is called hōroku-yaki. The word matsutake is also a euphemism for penis. Given the phallic shape of this mushroom and the fact that one can get lost looking for it in the woods there are off color stories about young men and women hunting for it together.
Anime:
The class mistakes the mushrooms Cherry brought as matsutake with delirious results in Urusei Yatsura (ep.86 story 109)
In Samurai Champloo (ep.22) Jin and Mugen go on a matsutake eating binge in the woods.
And in Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi (ep.1) matsutake are only one of several mushrooms mentioned by Sasshi when he lists a series of mushrooms.
Sources:
Constantine, Peter. Japan's Sex Trade p.156
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.92
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.104
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.938
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.70
matto sābisu (mat service) マットサービス
The English phrase "mat service" is used in soaplands (sōpurando The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125), and some other businesses in the fūzoku (sex industry), to refer to customers being serviced on an air mattress (matto) on the floor. These were introduced in the 1970s and only allowed for a greater range of services which could be offered, and charged, to the customer. The mattesses also reduced injuries from slippery tile and tubs. Some places even have mats in unusual shapes such as square, triangular and round.
Anime:
Moko in My Fair Masseuse often uses an air mattress in the sōpurando (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125) where she works.
Sources:
Constantine, Peter, Japan's Sex Trade p.35
Sinclair, Joan, Pink Box p.188

MAWASHI see: fundoshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.30)

MAY 15TH INCIDENT see: Goichigo Jiken (May 15th Incident)

MAYUZUMI see: see: okimayu

MCDONALD'S see: Makudonarudo (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.79)

MEAT GRILLED see: yakiniku (grilled meat)

MEATBALLS see: tsukune (The Anime Companion 2 p.109)

medaka (rice fish) メダカ
Oryzias latipes. A very small fish found in ponds, rice fields, irrigation ditches and small streams. The range is from Aomori Ken and Southwards. These are usually not used for food, they are popular as an aquarium fish.
Anime:
Yamanami talks about watching rice fish in a stream as a child in Peacemaker (ep 22)
Sources:
Kamohara Toshiji. Fishes of Japan p.31
FishBase entry on Oryzias latipes

MEDICINE, TRADITIONAL see: kampō (Chinese Medicine)

MEDICINE CHARRED PLANTS & ANIMALS see: kuroyaki (charred plants & animals)

MĒDO see: meido or mēdo (maid)

MEETING ROOM see: machiai shitsu (meeting room)

Meguro Gajōen 目黒雅叙園
A famous hotel, office and restaurant complex in 1-8-1 Shimo-Meguro, Meguro-ku 目黒区, Tokyo (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) on the banks of the Megurogawa. Sometimes simply called Gajōen, which translates as "garden of lyric elegance", it was also at times referred to as Ryugu-jo, "fairy tale dragon palace". Opened by Hosokawa Rikizō in 1931 and filled with beautiful example of the crafts of the time, including work by artisans from Korea, then a part of Japan. There were over 5,000 paintings in the original structure. From early on it even offered a full range of services for wedding receptions, even a photographer's studio and beauty parlor on site. The present, very modern, structure dates from 1991 and preserves elements of the original buildings as well as having a museum where many of the choicest works not used in present day rooms are on display. About half of the original artworks are still in use. The modern atrium is so large that it houses a traditional building, garden and includes a stream. The present complex fills 30,000 square meters, the office building is 19 stores high. The suites are large enough to handle from 50 to 1000 guests, and the complex can even accommodate 24 events at the same time, that's alot of weddings!
Anime:
In the book The Art of Miyazaki's Spirited Away (p.96) it is said that Meguro Gajōen was one of the major inspirations of the design of the bathhouse in Spirited Away.
Sources:
Architectural Map of Tokyo p.150
Gluck, Jay, Sumi Gluck and Garet Gluck. Japan Inside Out p.1153
Watanabe Hiroshi. Architecture of Tōkyō p.191
Tajima Noriyuki. Tokyo: A Guide to Recent Architecture p214-216
Web Site:
meguro gajoen english
Meguro-ku 目黒区
A ward of Tōkyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.104) bordered on the West by Setagaya-ku, the South by Ōta-ku, Southeast by Shinagawa-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.85) and the North East by Shibuya-ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.82). The name Meguro means "black eyed" and is commonly held to refer to the Meguro Fudōson a temple dedicated to Fudō-Myōō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.29) which was consecrated by the Buddhist priest Ennin. In the early 17th century, on the advice of the Buddhist (see: Bukkyō; The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) abbot Tenkai, this temple became one of the five protective Fudō-Myōō temples on the outskirts of Edo (The Anime Companion 2 p.18). Other sites in Meguro-ku include Meguro Gajōen, and Tennonzan Gohyaku Rakanji, Formerly a rural local Meguro-ku was the location of one of the areas reserved for the shōgun's falconry. Meguro was largely developed as a residential area after the 1923 earthquake (see: Kantō Daisinsai; The Anime Companion 2 p.41) becoming part of the urban landscape of Tōkyō.
Anime:
Shogo has been tracked to Aobadai in Meguro by the mysterious suited men in Megazone 23.
Sources:
Tokyo Metropolitan Atlas 22
Waley, Paul. Tokyo: City of Stories p.167, 176, 236-237
Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now & Then 406, 409
Web Site:
Meguro City English Pages
meido or mēdo (maid) メイド or メード
A Western style maid. The first anime with this type of character was the erotic OVA Cream Lemon: Black Cat Mansion where the mistress of the house has her maid join in on her sexual play with the young man she has seduced. Maids also show up in many other works erotic and non-erotic with settings ranging from Japan to Europe and America and even in fantasy and science fiction.
Anime and Manga:
Hanaukyo Maid Team involves a large household of maids involved in a variety of duties.
In Mahoromatic we have a maid with some very unusual skills, many of which come in handy.
Emma is a romance drama set in England with a maid and master who fall in love and have to deal with the prejudices of a rigid class society.
Anime:
One of the first maid themed shows released in the US was Hand Maid May.
The ero-anime OVA title Another Lady Innocent has plenty of maids in interestingly revealing outfits and more than a bit of sex.
Manga:
He Is My Master involves a 14 year old with a maid uniform fetish who hires three girls as maids.
Sarai is a tale with warrior maids who function as bodyguards in a distopian future.
Sources:
Azuma Hiroki. Otaku: Japan's Database Animals p.42
Takahashi Morio. Takashi’s Pocket Romanized English-Japanese Dictionary 2nd revised ed. p.269
Kamiya Taeko. Tuttle New Dictionary of Loanwords in Japanese p.203
Meido kafe (maid cafe) メイドカフェ
Maid cafe. These are cafes where the service is provided by waitresses in maid outfits.
Manga:
In Pretty Maniacs (v.2 p.45) the manga club's maid cafe is a big hit at the school festival.
Sources:
Tokyo Walking Around p.37
meigen (resounding bowstrings) 鳴弦
Twanging a bowstring to expel demons and other evil influences. This custom originated in the Heian Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44) when it was used by Chamberlains in the Imperial Court and guards. Meigen is still used today on certain occasions. Traditional uses recorded in Heian and later literature include when the emperor is ill or is entering his bath, for the ceremony of the first bath, on the birth of a royal heir, during confinement and it was used daily in the Imperial palace. Other terms for meigen include yuminarashi and tsuruuchi.
Anime:
We see bow string twanging in a ritual in the flashback in "The Threshold" episode of Gasaraki (ep.15).
The Shugendō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124) practitioner Daikaku uses bow string twanging in a ceremony to raise the statue of Hachikō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.37) in Spirit Warrior: A Harvest of Cherry Blossoms.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.945
Tubielewicz, Jolanta. Superstitions, Magic and Mantic Practices in the Heian Period p.91-93, 206
Meiji Jingū (Meiji shrine) 明治神宮 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.953
A Look Into Tokyo p.114 Web Site:
明治神宮-Meijijingu
Meiji Period [Meiji Jidai] 明治時代 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.948

MEIJI SHRINE see: Meiji Jingū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)

meinichi (death anniversary) 命日 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.81)
Sources:
Japanese Family and Culture p.103
meishi (business card) 名刺 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1045

MEMORIAL ALTAR, BUDDHIST see: butsudan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.16)

MEN IN BLACK see: kurogo (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.76)

MEN OF HIGH PURPOSE see: shishi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86)

men rui (noodles) めんるい or 麺類 (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)
Sources:
Ashburne, John and Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.37- Eating in Japan p.89-98
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.93

MERMAID see: ningyo (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.95)

metsubushi (sight remover) 目潰し
Metsubushi translates as "crushing the eyes". In martial arts such as jūjutsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.56) it is a type of attack on the eyes to harm or distract. Often special powders or even liquids are employed, and in a pinch even improvised common materials such as dirt and sand can be used. Prepared powders could contain irritants such as togarashi (chili pepper) or nettle. Even small explosive devices that would spread smoke were at times used. However you are more likely to see it in the form of a blinding powder or the weapon containing the powder. Such powders are associated with Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) police who used it to aid in the capture of criminals by blowing the powder in the face of suspects through a special container called a sokutōku. Metsubushi are also associated with ninjutsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.95) as an aid to escape. Several types of containers could be used for metsubushi, such as hollow bamboo, nut shells, even a hollow eggshell filled with the powder, this type of eggshell weapon is called a happō.
Anime:
"Blinding powder" is used on Jigen in the Lupin the 3rd Royal Scramble episode "The Riddle of Tsukikage Castle".
Manga:
In chapter 120 of GTO Great Teacher Onizuka (v.15) a guy gets hit in the face with a hollow egg filled with powder. The TOKYOPOP translation has Kikuchi say "Pepper Spray", in the original this is "To tōgarashi bakudan" ("With a chili pepper bomb").
In Rurouni Kenshin (v.22 p.145) Yahiko is hit with what he first thinks is "blinding powder" but turns out to have another use.
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.83
Mol, Serge. Classical Weaponry of Japan p.124
metsuke (inspector, censor) 目付
Also called yokome. The title of metsuke came into being in the 15th century as spies for daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) and local military rulers. In the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) the office was made a formal one within the shogun's government (see: bakufu, (The Anime Companion 2 p.8) with 10 metsuke chosen from the hatamoto (The Anime Companion 2 p.27), at times their numbers were as high as 24. Their main duties were to supervise and investigate the direct vassals, hatamoto and gokenin, as well as other staff of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) such as the Nagasaki bugyō, at times covertly. The metsuke reported to the wakadoshiyori rather than to the ōmetsuke. At the same time each han (The Anime Companion 2 p.26) had it's own metsuke for the internal monitoring of vassals.
Manga:
In Satsuma Gishiden (v.2 p.46) a Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) metsuke makes a pronouncement at a meeting.
In Blade of the Immortal (v.15 Trickster ch."Forsaken") a prisoner is offered an assignment to kill four people, he is warned that if he does it out of order the metsuke will kill him.
In Lone Wolf and Cub (v.12 p.125) a message from Matsudaira's metsuke is mentioned.
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Secret Weapons of Jujutsu p.57
Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu p.39
Deal, William E. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan p.97, 100
Goedertier, Joseph M. A Dictionary of Japanese History p.180
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.956
Nakai, Kate Wildman. Shogunal Politics p.110

METSUKE see also: ōmetsuke (inspectors general)

meuchi 目打ち
A perforation, also an awl or punch for making them. In cooking a meuchi is a slender steel spike with a handle in either a T or straight shape. These are used to secure the head of an eel (see: unagi, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.144) to to a cutting board keep it from flopping around which makes it easier to hold still for filleting. Modern meuchi are made from stainless steel and a cutting board used with the meuchi has a hole drilled in it for the spike to fit into.
Anime:
In episode 11 of Samurai Champloo Jin gets assistance in preparing kabayaki, we see an eel with it's head secured by a meuchi, butterfly filleted from the back with an Edo style unagisaki (eel knife).
Manga:
In Oishinbo A la Carte: Izakaya: Pub Food (p.217) we see a close-up of the front section of an eel secured with a meuchi and the front of a Tokyo style unagisaki.
Sources:
Nozaki Hiromitsu. Japanese Kitchen Knives p.124, 128-129
Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary p.1719

MIAI see: omiai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.101)

Mibu 壬生
An area located in Nakagyō-ku in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77). Formerly this was a village on the edge of the city. It is well known as the location of the first headquarters of the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) as this is where the group was living when it split off from the Roshigumi.
Anime:
In Peacemaker the setting for the headquarters is in Mibu.
Manga:
That the Shinsengumi were founded in Mibu is mentioned in Rurouni Kenshin (v.7 p.15)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shōgun's Last Samurai Corps p.16, 33, 196
Rowthorn, Chris and Mason Florence. Kyōto. p.120

MIBU RŌSHIGUMI see: Rōshigumi

MIBU TEMPLE see: Mibudera

MIBU WOLVES see: Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86)

Mibudera 壬生寺
Located in Nakagyō-ku in a part of Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77) also known as Mibu village. This temple of the Ritsu Sect of Buddhism (Bukkyō The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) is a short distance from Ōmiya station. The temple was founded on the orders of Emperor Shōmu and constructed from around 991 to 1005. Today this complex is best known for the annual performance each April of Mibu kyōgen, a silent comedic play style. It is also the location of the graves of many members of the Shinsengumi (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) who died in Kyōto.
Anime:
In episode six of Peacemaker the competition is taking place at Mibudera with the gate to the temple seen at the opening.
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.956
Kyōto-Ōsaka: A Bilingual Atlas 34 D6
Rowthorn, Chris and Mason Florence. Kyōto. p.120

MICHIZANE see: Sugawara no Michizane

MICHINOKU NO KUNI see: Mutsu no Kuni

MICHI NO MIYA see: Shōwa Tennō (The Anime Companion 2 p.88)

MIDNIGHT VISIT see: yobai

Mie ken 三重県 OLD FORM 三重縣 (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.958
Web Sites:
Mie Prefecture (official site)

MIE PREFECTURE see: Mie ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)

miitsu みいつ or 威霊
The high dignity or majesty possessed by a kami (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.59) or the Emperor. The common pronunciation of the word is miizu.
Anime:
In Kami Chu miitsu is translated as 'full of sanctity' when Matsuri speaks of Yurie's attitude when she was being scolded at school. Mitsue says she was just unashamed.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.36
Takahashi Morio. Pocket Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary p.665

MIIZU see: miitsu

mikan みかん or 蜜柑 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.53, p.68
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.93
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.959
mikkyō (Esoteric Buddhism) 密教 OLD FORM 密敎 (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)
Sources:
Inagaki Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.206
Japanese-English Buddhist Dictionary p.197
Arai Yūsei. Shingon Esoteric Buddhism p.9-
Yamasaki Taikō. Shingon p.4-
miko (shrine maiden) 巫女 or 神子 OLD FORM (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.960
A Look Into Tokyo p.116

MIKO DANCE see: miko-mai (miko dance)

mikoshi (portable shrine) 神輿 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82)
Sources:
Festivals of Japan p.58
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.961
A Look Into Japan p.90
miko-mai (miko dance) 巫女舞
Ritual dances performed by miko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.82) at Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) shrines (see: jinja, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.54).
Anime:
In Twin Dolls and Twin Angels Ai and Mai perform miko-mai.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.37
mikuji (fortune stick) 神籤 also 御鬮 or omikuji 御神籤 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.83)
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.44
A Look Into Japan p.22
Must-See in Nikko p.88
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1148

MILE POST see: ichirizuka (milestone mound)

MILESTONE MOUND see: ichirizuka (milestone mound)

MILITARY COMMISSIONER FOR KYŌTO see: Kyōto Shugoshoko (The Anime Companion 2 p.53)

MILITARY GOVERNMENT see: bakufu (The Anime Companion 2 p.8)

MILITARY GOVERNOR see: shugo (military governor)

MILUO FO see: Miroku (Maitreya)

mimikaki (ear scoop) 耳かき (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.83)
Sources:
Discover Japan v.1 p.44
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.39
Minamoto 源 or Minamoto family 源氏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.83)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.273, 963, 1498

MINAMOTO NO RAIKŌ see: Minamoto no Yorimitsu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)

Minamoto no Yorimitsu 源頼光 OLD FORM 源賴光(The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.965
Minamoto no Yoshitsune 源義経 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.966
Who's Who of Japan p.44

MINATO WARD see: Minato Ku (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)

Minato-ku 港区 OLD FORM 港區 (The Anime Companion 2 p.56)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.966
Web Sites:
Minato (official site)

MINISKIRT POLICE see: minisuka porisu (miniskirt police)

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND WELFARE see: Kōseishō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.74)

MINISTRY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INDUSTRY (MITI) see: Tsūshō Sangyō Shō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.141)

MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR see: Naimushō (The Anime Companion 2 p.60)

minisuka porisu (miniskirt police) ミニスカポリス
Miniskirt police, that is women dressed in police uniforms with short skirts, originated in 1996 on the late night TV show Shutsudō! The combination of an authority figure uniform and a miniskirt became a a new type of uniform fetish for many men. There is even a restaurant chain where customers are placed in cells and waitresses wear miniskirt police uniforms called "The Lockup".
Anime:
Perhaps the most famous police officer in a mini is Jenny from Pokemon.
Miyuki cosplays (see: kosupure, The Anime Companion 2 p.50) as a mini-skirt policewoman in Matoko's fantasy in Step Up Love Story (Lesson 4).
In You're Under Arrest: Fast & Furious actress Hasumi Yuka dresses as a mini skirt policewoman in her TV show (File 13) and later in the series for the Botoku bridge opening ceremonies (File 25).
Sources:
Galbraith, Patrick. The Otaku Encyclopedia p.148
mino (rainwear) 蓑 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1459

MINOBŌSHI see: mino (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)

Minshatō (Democratic Socialist Party) 民社党 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.278
mirin 味醂
A type of sweet slightly alcoholic liquid used for cooking. Mirin is not sake (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109) and is usually made by mixing shōchū (The Anime Companion 2 p.86) with glutinous and malted rice then aging it for a few months before filtering it. The manufacturing process produces sugars making the mirin sweet which is why it is used in cooking. The alcohol, about 14%, contained in mirin burns off in the cooking process. Some uses of mirin include in nimono (simmered food), sunomono, aemono, sauces, to glaze yakimono (grilled foods) and to make stock (see: dashi, The Anime Companion 2 p.15). There is cheap imitation mirin on the market which does not give the same flavor as the authentic product which is refered to as hon-mirin and sold in better stores and sakaya (sake brewer and dealer).
Manga:
In Moyasimon (v.1 p.43) Sawaki correctly identifies an unlabeled bottle as having mirin in it just by looking at it.
As a common cooking ingredient it is no surprise that mirin shows up in Oishinbo, for example in: Oishinbo A la Carte: Ramen & Gyoza (p.106), Oishinbo A la Carte: Joy of Rice (p.134) and Oishinbo A la Carte: Vegitables (p.183).
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi. World Food Japan p.36
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.94
Illustrated Eating in Japan p.159
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.975
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.101
Miroku (Maitreya) 弥勒
Sanskrit name: Maitreya, the name translates as 'Benevolent'. In Chinese he is called: Miluo Fo, Tibetan: Byam-pa, Mongol: Maijdari, Vietnamise: Di-lac and Korean: Mi-rüg, in Japan he is sometimes called Jishi Bosatsu. Miroku is the bodhisattva (see: bosatsu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.13) of the future and a major figure in Japanese Buddhist (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) tradition. Teachings regarding Miroku and images were brought to Japan in the late 6th century making them among the earliest Buddhist influences in Japan. Tradition says Miroku resides in the Tosotsu (Sanskrit: Tusita) heaven. In the future he shall come to this world, achieve Buddhahood and lead humanity to enlightenment. Large number of statues of Miroku exist in Japan, many can be found in major temples. He is also associated with the veneration of certain mountains and some groups see him as a messianic figure.
Manga:
In Phoenix (v.4 Karma p.24) Akanemaru tells Gao of a new Miroku statue from Kurada (Paikeche) at Eiho-ji.
Sources:
Ashkenazi, Michael. Handbook of Japanese Mythology p.215-216
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.975

MIRROR see: seidōkyō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.112)

MIRROR RICE CAKES see: kagami-mochi (New Year rice cake ornament)

MI-RÜG see: Miroku (Maitreya)

mismatched foods [kuiawase 食い合わせ] (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.71
miso (soy bean paste) 味噌 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.84)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.977

MISO SOUP see: misoshiru (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.85)

MISO SOUP, NOODLES IN see: miso-rāmen (The Anime Companion 2 p.57)

misogi (purification) 禊 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.85)
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shintō (1958) p.40
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.978
miso-rāmen みそラーメン or 味噌ラーメン (The Anime Companion 2 p.57)
Sources:
Ashburne, John & Abe Yoshi World Food Japan p.40, 266
Nagasawa Kimiko & Camy Condon. Eating Cheap in Japan p. 30, 31
misoshiru (miso soup) みそしる or 味噌汁 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.85)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.978

MISTĀ REDĪ see: nyū hāfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.64)

Mitaka 三鷹 [市] (The Anime Companion 2 p.57)
Sources:
Naito Akira. Edo: The City That Became Tokyo p. 110
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.979
Exhibiting Animation p. 96.
mitarashi dango 御手洗団子
A type of rice dango (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) made at Shimokamo jinja in Kyōto (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77). At the shrine these consist of five dango on a skewer the one on the end being larger and representing a head, the other four are the body. The danga are grilled over charcoal and basted with shōyu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.124). Mitarashi dango are offered at weddings at the shrine. The term is also used to refer to smaller numbers of skewered rice dango prepared in the same manner.
Anime:
Yuba, ganmodoki, tokoroten, kiritanpo, kinchaku are all mentioned by Orihime as she discusses the "mitarashi rice balls" she is eating in Sakura Wars: The Movie.
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.96
Nagasawa Kimiko & Camy Condon. Eating Cheap in Japan p.88
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.102

MITI see: Tsūshō Sangyō Shō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p. 141)

Mito han 水戸藩 OLD FORM 水戶藩 (The Anime Companion 2 p.57)
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 334
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.979

MITO KŌMON see: Tokugawa Mitsukuni (The Anime Companion 2 p.103)

MITOME see: hanko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.40)

Mitsubishi 三菱 (The Anime Companion 2 p.57)
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p. 335
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.980
Web Sites:
Mitsubishi Corporation Homepage

MITSUBISHI NAVY TYPE 1 ATTACK BOMBER (G4M) see: Betty (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

MITSUBISHI NAVY TYPE 1 ATTACK BOMBER TRAINER (G6M1-K) see: Betty (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

MITSUBISHI NAVY TYPE 1 FORMATION ESCORT FIGHTER (G6M1) see: Betty (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

MITSUBISHI TYPE 0 CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER see: Zerosen (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

MITSUBISHI TYPE 1 TRANSPORT (G6M1-L2) see: Betty (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.9)

MITSUBISHI ZERO-TYPE CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER see: Zerosen (aircraft) (The Anime Companion 2 p.122)

MIXED DRINKING SESSION see: gōkon (mixed drinking session)

Miyabe Teizo 宮部鼎蔵 OLD FORM 宮部鼎藏 (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)
Sources:
Hillsborough, Romulus. Ryoma: Life of a Renaissance Samurai p.214.
miyage (souvenir) 土産 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)
Sources:
Japanese Family and Culture p.131
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman Japan From A to Z p.101
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.986)
Miyagi Ken 宮城県 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.987, 1344
Web site:
Well Come to Miyagi's Homepage (official site)

MIYAGI PREFECTURE see: Miyagi Ken (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)

MIYAJIMA see: Itsukushima

Miyamoto Musashi 宮本武蔵 OLD FORM 宮本武藏 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.989
Who's Who of Japan p.102
Martial Arts & Sports in Japan p.103
Weisser, Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser. Japanese Cinema: Essential Handbook p.279
Miyazawa Kenji 宮沢賢治 OLD FORM 宮澤賢治 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.990-991
Huddleston, Daniel "Kenji Miyazawa." Animerica vol. 6 #1 p.8-9, 26-29
Supplementary information:
Some of Miyazawa's works are available in English.
Once and Forever, Kodansha. ISBN: 4-7700-2184-4
Milky Way Railroad, Stone Bridge Press. ISBN: 1-880656-26-4
mizuage 水揚げ
While mizuage is usually referred to as "deflowering" or "first sexual experience" it literally refers to unloading goods from a barge. Officially this ceremony launching of a girl to the status of a high ranking courtesan took place when a kamuro reached 18, however the law was often ignored and girls of a younger age often underwent this ceremonial loss of virginity to a high paying patron. However not every kamuro was a virgin, patrons rarely objected to this falsehood as there was a certain honor in being the first patron in the young woman's change of status. The custom also exists as part of the ceremonies for a maiko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78) becoming a geisha (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.33), however today often the patron is merely ceremonial or the mizuage is not part of the ceremonies at all.
Anime:
The tayū Akesato mentions that Saya and Ohana are turning 16 the next year so the topic of their mizuage is coming up Peacemaker (ep 13)
Sources:
Dalby, Liza. Geisha p.109-110
Seigle, Cecilia Segawa. Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan p,179-180
mizugori (waterfall purification) 水垢離 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86)
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shintō (1958) p.40
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.978
mizuhiki (decorative cords) 水引 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)
Sources:
Vardaman, James M. and Michiko Sakaki Vardaman. Japanese Etiquette Today p.90
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.992
mizushōbai (water trade) 水商売 or みずしょうばい
A slightly old fashioned term for the entertainment business such as restaurants, kissaten (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.70), tea shops, bars, sunakku (The Anime Companion 2 p.93), nightclubs, hosuto kurabu, theaters, brothels, sōpurando (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.125) etc. The term is a metaphor for the unpredictable way entertainment business profits can go up and down, much like water in a river, sometimes it floods, sometimes it is low. I have been informed by a Japanese acquantance that is it also a slang term and has connotations of not being respectable.
Anime and Manga:
In City Hunter we see Ryo return again and again to many of the various mizushōbai businesses found in Kabukichō (The Anime Companion 2 p.35).
Anime:
In The Gokusen (ep 9) mizushōbai, translated as nightlife trade, is mentioned by Kumiko when she is chewing out her students for doing such a bad job with the host club at the school culture festival.
Manga:
Club 9 is the story of a young woman working as a hosutesu (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47) in the Ginza (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.35), an excellent example of modern day mizushōbai.
Sources:
De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan Encyclopedia p.339, 516
Otsuki Hiroshi & Bradley Grindstaff. Cultural Keys p.69-70

MOAI STATUE see: Moyai-zo (moyai statue)

MOAT OF BLACK TEETH see: Ohaguro-dobu (Ditch of Black Teeth)

mobo (modern boy) モボ
A contraction of the English phrase "modern boy". The mobo was the male equivalent of the moga (modern girl) whom he courted in the urban centers of Japan in the inter war years at the height of the period of eroguro nansensu. The mobo also was a highly Westernized figure in the Japanese society of the time.
Manga:
Mo-boy and mo-girl are two entries visible in a dictionary Misaki checks in Welcome to the NHK (v.2 p.114)
Sources:
Silverberg, Miriam, Erotic Grotesque Nonsense p.51
Waley, Paul, Tokyo: City of Stories p.98

MO-BOY see: mobo (modern boy)

mochi (rice cake) 餅 OLD FORM 餠 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)
Sources:
Outlook on Japan p.142
Richie, Donald. A Taste of Japan p.76-82
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.270
MOCHI see also:

abekawamochi

ohagi (The Anime Companion 2 p.66)

Kashiwa Mochi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.63)

kagami-mochi (New Year rice cake ornament)

sakura mochi (The Anime Companion 2 p.76)

MOCHI NEW YEAR ORNAMENT see: kagami-mochi (New Year rice cake ornament)

MOCHI POUNDING see: mochi-tsuki (mochi pounding)

mochi-tsuki (mochi pounding) 餅搗
Pounding glutinous rice to make mochi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87). The rice would soaked overnight then steamed, it is pounded in a large mortar, using a large mallet. After each pounding the resulting mochi is rotated, this is repeated until it is ready to be formed into individual mochi by hand. This is traditionally one of the activities which is done before the New Year.
Anime:
Mochi pounding is seen among photos shown in Ah! My Goddess Flights of Fancy [TV series season 2] disc 2 ep.7 "Ah! I Shall Grant Your Wish!"
The Rabbit Gang boss and minions do mochi pounding on the moon after their defeat in Dragon Ball Season One (ep.9) "Boss Rabbit's Magic Touch."
Manga:
In Samurai Executioner (v.4 p.39) Yamada Asaemon meets a group of kobushin and visits with them, even pounding and eating mochi with them.
Sources:
Yamaguchi Momoo, Kojima Setsuko. A Cultural Dictionary of Japan p.187

MODERN BOY see: mobo (modern boy)

moe 萌えor もえ
A term, pronounced "mo-eh", used to express feelings regarding cute, usually young, persons and objects one has a special affection for. The modern use of the term seems to be derived from the word for a sprouting plant. That word has a very long history of use as an expression for budding love, for example this use is found in the Man'yōshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80). Today moe is usually applied to cute anime, game or manga characters to express affection at their cuteness and innocence. The term is also applied to actual persons such as idol singers. Moe has a strong platonic element to it, much like the affection and protective urge an older brother has for a younger sibling. However by extension the term is also used for items that are associated with cute characters such maid outfits, glasses, uniforms and so on, this can easily cross the line into fetishism ceasing to be innocent.
Manga:
In Pretty Maniacs (p.175) Rex is accepted into the manga club after he says "I live for Moe girls."
Sources:
Macias, Patrick and Machiyama Tomohiro. Cruising the Anime City p.50-51
Tokyo Walking Around p.37
moga (modern girl) モガ
A contraction of the English phrase "modern girl". The moga was a phenomenon in the urban centers of Japan in the inter war years at the height of the period of eroguro nansensu (erotic-grotesque nonsense). She was largely a mythical construct of the popular press, seen as something of a party girl dressed in modern Western clothing far more interested in the current fashions and frivolous activities than in the liberation of women. Seen as aggressive and erotic the image of the moga was threatening to many conservatives of the time.
Manga:
Mo-boy (mobo (modern boy)) and mo-girl are two entries visible in a dictionary Misaki checks in Welcome to the NHK (v.2 p.114)
Sources:
Seidensticker, Edward, Tokyo Rising p.40
Silverberg, Miriam, Erotic Grotesque Nonsense p.52-65
Waley, Paul, Tokyo: City of Stories p.98

MO-GIRL see: moga (modern girl)

MODERN GIRL see: moga (modern girl)

MOHRI MOTONARI see: Mōri Motonari

mokugyo 木魚 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)
Sources:
A Look Into Japan p.26
mokumokuren 目目連
A yōkai consisting of large numbers of eyes peeking from the squares of a shōji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) screen. The term mokumokuren can be translated as "many eyes". Yōkai cataloger Toriyama Sekien in the description for mokumokuren in his illustrated book Konjaku Hyakki Shui makes a humorous reference to the "eyes", empty spaces, in the game go (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.36). Some scholars consider the mokumokuren to have been a tongue-in-cheek creation of Toriyama Sekien for his book.
Anime:
Eyes suddenly appear on a shoji screen as Saizo passes over the roof of a building in Ghost Slayers Ayashi (ep.9).
Sources:
Yoda Hiroko and Matt Alt. Yokai Attack! p.94.
Foster, Michael Dylan. Pandemonium and Parade p.66, 67fig, 170, 231n70.

MOLESTER see: chikan

MOLESTER TRAIN see: chikan densha (pervert train)

MOMIJI MANJŪ see: manjū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.80)

MOMIJI see: kaede to momiji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.58)

MOMO NO SEKKU see: Hina Matsuri (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.45)

Momotarō (Peach Boy) 桃太郎 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.87)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.998
mon (family or organizational crest) 家紋 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)
Sources:
Discover Japan v.2 p.90
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.254 Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.8, 669
A Look Into Japan p.60-61
monaka (stuffed wafer cake) 最中
A wagashi (traditional confections) originating in the early nineteenth century. Monaka originally was just dry wafers. Today it consists of double light wafers stuffed with an. The shape and size can greatly vary as can the type of an used in the filling.
Manga:
Square monaka are visible in Doing Time (p.125)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food p.97
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.221

MONEY OFFERINGS see: saisen (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.109)

MONGOL INVASION see: kōan no eki (The Anime Companion 2 p.47)

MONJA see: monjayaki

monjayaki もんじゃ焼き
Originating in the Kantō region (see: Kantō Chihō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.61) as a snack food, monjayaki is a mixture of seafood and vegetables combined in a batter and cooked on a griddle. While it resembles okonomiyaki (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.100) the batter is runnier and the seasonings are mixed into it. While any of a large number of different ingredients can go into the mixture common ingredients mixed with the batter include cabbage, tenkasu and squid (see: ika, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.48). After WWII sauce (sōsu) was commonly added to the batter for extra flavor. Often monjayaki is just called monja.
Anime:
In Samurai Champloo (ep.18) that okonomiyaki is not the same as monjayaki is said by Mugen when he realizes this fact.
Tokarin asks Natsumi to go to a monja place in You're Under Arrest: Fast & Furious (File 18).
Sources:
Dodd, Jan and Simon Richmond. The Rough Guide to Tokyo p.137
Japan's Tasty Secrets p.8
Tokyo Walking Around p.67
Monju (Manjusri) 文殊
The bodhisattva (see: bosatsu, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.13) of Wisdom, known as Manjusri in Sanskrit, Wenshu in Chinese, Manchushri in Mongol and 'Jam-dpal in Tibetan. He is often portrayed seated on a lion, or on the left of Shakamuni Buddha. There are many types of representations including holding a sword or scepter in his right hand and a book or lotus flower (see: hasu) in his left, his hair may be in 3 or 5 knots, sometimes with a five pointed crown. Some representations have him crossing a sea with five attendants. The number five in these cases is said to represent the Fivefold Wisdom of Mahavairochana. He is mentioned in several sutras such as the Garland Sutra (Kegonkyō), the Manjusriparinirvana Sutra and the Lotus Sutra (see: Myōhōrengekyō). One of the earliest representations of him in Japan was an image brought from China by Saicho which he placed in Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei (see: Hieizan, The Anime Companion 2 p.28). While rarely venerated in Japan he may be worshiped by students in the hope of improving their penmanship and success in exams.
Manga:
Dororo's mother prays to Monju at a temple while they are on the run in Dororo (v.2 p.174).
Sources:
Frederic, Louis. Buddhism: Flammarion Iconographic Guides p.192-96
Inagaki Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.209
Matsunami Kodo. Essentials of Buddhist Images p.70-72
Miner, Earl; Odagiri Hiroko and Robert Morrell. The Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature p.383

MONK'S STAFF see: shakujō (monk's staff)

MONKEY see: saru (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.111)

MONKEY KING see: Son Goku (The Anime Companion 2 p.90)

MONKEY SHOWS see: saru mawashi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.111)

MONKS HAT see: sando-gasa (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.111)

MONK'S STAFF, DECEPTIVE see: shikomi shakujō (deceptive monk's staff)

monoimi 物忌
A ritual purification involving secluded confinement to one's house for a period of time. The word can also be used to indicate a fast or abstaining from a particular food.
Anime:
Otogi Zoshi (ep.4) monoimi is used as an excuse to not visit the Imperial Court.
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.40
Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto p.127
Dictionary of Japanese History p.217
Takahashi Morio. Pocket Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary p.684
mononoke 物の怪
A vague term for a variety of strange and frightening things. Many references to mononoke are found in Heian Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.44) literature such as the Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji). It could be a spirit that possesses another person and causes death or illness. Traditionally these are either spirits of the dead or of living persons who have a strong emotion that leads them to cause harm. In the case of the living the mononoke temporarily separates itself from the body to attack it's victim.
Anime:
The most famous person to be called a mononoke in anime is San in Princess Mononoke.
In the first episode of Inu Yasha when the centipede woman attacks the village you hear someone shout that it is a mononoke, translated as evil spirit in the subtitles and monster in the re-dub.
However as far as I know the first anime to be released in the US with a mononoke is the Tale of Genji movie where the young Murasaki falls ill and someone wonders if it is due to a mononoke.
Sources:
Foster, Michael Dylan. Morphologies of Mystery: Yōkai and Discources of the Supernatural in Japan 1666-1999
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1002
Morris, Ivan. The World of the Shining Prince p.147-52

MONSHŌ see: mon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)

MONSTER see:
bakemono (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.8)
yōkai

MONSTER, GIANT see: kaiju (The Anime Companion 2 p.37)

MONTH WITHOUT GODS see: kaminazuki (month without gods)

MONTOSHŪ see: Jōdo-Shinshū

MOON LUTE OR MOON GUITAR see: gekkin (The Anime Companion 2 p.22)

MOON VIEWING see: tsukimi (moon viewing)

Mori Arinori 森有礼
1847-89 Born in Satsuma han (The Anime Companion 2 p.80) he attended Zōshikan, a school for samurai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.110), and later studied Western learning at the Kaiseijo. In 1865 he left Japan to study mathematics, physics and naval surveying in England. After the overthrow of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) he became a member of the new government and in 1871 went to the United States as Japan's first envoy to Washington. In the US he studied the educational system and other social institutions, In 1873 he returned to Japan and founded Meirokusha, a society for intellectuals. He proposed many social reforms, including a secular state and religious freedom, and educational modernization. He even went so far as to urge the adoption of English as the official language of Japan. In 1885 he was made the first Minister of Education by Itō Hirobumi. He instituted many educational reforms that have been credited with reinforcing the later rise of militarism in Japan. On February 11, 1889 Mori Arinori was assassinated by a Shintō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.121) fanatic.
Manga:
The craziness of Mori's proposal to adopt English as the language of Japan is mentioned in Lady Snowblood (v.1 p.232)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1003
Mōri Motonari 毛利元就
1497-1571 A famous daimyō (The Anime Companion 2 p.15) of the early Sengoku jidai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.113) who originally had little power. He allied himself with the Amako family but later he changed allies and on the orders of the Ōuchi family defeated the Amako. After Sue Harukata killed the head of the Ōuchi family Motonari led his army against Sue in battle on Itsukushima in 1555. With no significant rival in the area over a period of several years he took control of a large territory in western Honshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47) and in Kyūshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.78) as well as the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai The Anime Companion 2 p.82). When he died in his mid 70s his grandson Mōri Terumoto took over as clan leader.
Anime:
Saber Marionette J (ep. 6) Hanagata's breaking one log to show that 3 are stronger is a reference to a tale of Motonari giving his three sons a lesson in solidarity by showing them that three arrows together are stronger than one alone.
In Sword for Truth it is mentioned that "Mohri Motonari" is served by the Seki Ninja
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1004
Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Sourcebook p. 63
Who's Who of Japan p.69
Mori Ōgai 森鴎外 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)
Sources:
Who's Who of Japan p.161
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1005

MORI OHGAI see: Mori Ōgai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)

MORI RINTARŌ see: Mori Ōgai (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)

Morioka 盛岡 [市] (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)
Sources:
Frederic, Louis Japan Encyclopedia p.661
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1006
Papinot, E. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan p.409

MORNING GLORY see: asagao (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.6)

MOSQUITO NETTING see: kaya (mosquito netting)

MOSQUITO REPELLANT see: katorisenkō

MOTHER AND CHILD HANDBOOK see: Boshi Kenkō Techō (Maternal and Child Health Handbook)

mother-in-law [shūto-me しょうとめ or shūto 姑 or gibo 義母] (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)
Sources:
Joya, Mock. Mock Joya's Things Japanese p.670
Japanese Family and Culture p.180

MOTOMAYU see: okimayu

MOTORCYCLE GANGS see: bōsōzoku (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.14)

MOUND TO MARK DISTANCE see: ichirizuka (milestone mound)

MOUNT HIEI see: Hieizan (The Anime Companion 2 p.28)

MOUNTAIN DIETY see: yama no kami (god of the mountain)

MOUNTAIN PRIESTS see: yamabushi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.146)

MOUNTAIN VEGETABLES see: sansai (The Anime Companion 2 p.78)

MOUNTAIN WHALE see: yamakujira (mountain whale)

MOUTH LIKE A SHARK see: kuchi-sake-onna (slit-mouthed woman)

MOUTH ON BACK OF HEAD see: futakuchi-onna (two mouthed woman)

MOUTH ORGAN see: shō (mouth organ)

MOXA TREATMENT see: kyū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77)

MOXIBUSTION see: kyū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.77)

Moyai-zo (moyai statue) モヤイ像
Large stone head statues carved by the inhabitants of Niijima, an island in the Izu Islands chain. The word moyai means "in common" or "jointly" in Japanese and has a meaning of "to help each other" in the dialect of the island. The most famous of these statues is the one at Shibuya Station outside the West gate, that is opposite from the Hachiko (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.37) statue on the East side. That statue actually has two faces one of which is carved in relief on the side facing away from the station exit.
Anime:
A sad Aya finds herself hanging out at the moyai statue in Super Gals! (ep 5).
In Step Up Love Story (Lesson 1) Yura and Makoto meet at the moyai statue, this time you see the face on the side facing away from the station.
Manga:
Nico arrainges to meet a girl at the "Moai statue" in Shibuya in Sexy Voice and Robo (p.370, 373).
Sources:
Observations of the statue while visiting Tokyo in 2009.
Bilingual Atlas of Tokyo 6 D2
Shoji Kaori "Shall we meet at Sutaba, Tsutaya or the dog's tail?" Japan Times Thursday, June 3, 2004

MR LADY see: nyū hāfu (The Anime Companion 2 p.64)

MT. ASO IN KYŪSHŪ see: Aso-san (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.7)

MT. FUJI see: Fuji-san (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.30)

MT. KŌYA see: Kōya-san (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.75)

MT. KURAMA see: Kuramayama (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.76)

muchi [yōkai] 鞭
Muchi literally means whip. In Kochi Ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.47), part of the island of Shikoku (The Anime Companion 2 p.84), there are variant names and legends of this yōkai. In Kuroishi village, Kuroishi county, it is called muchi as it manifests as a strong wind and makes a whipping sound as it goes over the rice paddies. They say the muchi makes people sick. In Sayama village, Tosa county, it is called muji and is said to especially haunt cows and horses killing them. Blindfolding cows and horses is said to protect them. In Kagami village, Tosa county, they call it bushi, again for the sound it makes in the fields, and they say it cuts the skin, much like a kamaitachi (weasel slash).
Manga:
Yura correctly identifies the yōkai Muchi when she and Nurarihyon are confronted by him in Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan v.3 p.146.
Sources:
Takahashi Morio. Pocket Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary p.691
Mizuki Shigeru. Mujara: The Encyclopedia of Japanese Yokai Illustrations and Episodes #12

MUDRĀ see: inzō (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.50)

Mugai Ryū 無外流 (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)
Sources:
Frederic, Louis. Dictionary of the Martial Arts p.160
Draeger, Donn F. Classical Budo p.90 - 94
mugicha (barley tea) 麦茶 (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)
Sources:
Hosking, Richard. Dictionary of Japanese Food p.99
Krouse, Carolyn R. A Guide to Food Buying in Japan p.107

MUJI [YŌKAI] see: muchi [yōkai]

mukaebi (welcoming fire) 迎え火
A small fire lit at the beginning of the Bon (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.12) festival to welcome back the spirits of the dead. These are set near the entrance to each home to welcome the spirits in so offerings can be made to them. Peeled hemp is often used for these fires. There is another fire used at the end of the Bon Festival called the okuribi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.100).
Anime:
Tenchi and his father pray at a mukaebi in Tenchi The Movie 2: The Daughter of Darkness.
Manga:
Aya speaks of the mukaebi leading back the spirits of the dead from Yomi in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.93).
Sources:
Basic Terms of Shinto (revised edition) p.3
Illustrated Japanese Family & Culture p.90

MUKASHI MUKASHI OIWA NO KAIDAN see: Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan (Ghost Story of Tōkaidō Yotsuya)

MULLET ROE see: karasumi (botargo)

Muramasa 村正
1341- ? A master sword smith who learned his craft under the famous Masamune. His swords were of such high quality that one is said to have been placed upright in a stream and cut floating leaves in two. Muramasa is reported to have been violent and mentally unstable, his blades were said to have been influenced by this in that they were bloodthirsty, and made their owners carry out violent acts or commit suicide. For the Tokugawa clan (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.137) they were considered especially unlucky. For example Tokugawa Ieyasu (The Anime Companion 2 p.102) cut himself on one when he was a child and later when inspecting a Muramasa blade after the Battle Of Sekigahara (Sekigahara no Tatakai, The Anime Companion 2 p.81). His son Tokugawa Nobuyasu had his head cut off by the Muramasa sword of Amakata Michitsuna. His grandfather Matsudaira Kiyoyasu was killed by the Muramasa sword of Abe Yashichi.
Anime:
Sasshi spots a Muramasa blade at a street stall in episode two of Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi.
Kyo's sword is a Muramasa in Samurai Deeper Kyo.
Manga:
That "Tokugawa Hirotada" (Matsudaira Hirotada) was stabbed in the crotch by a Muramasa sword is mentioned in Samurai Executioner (v.3 p.23)
A Muramasa sword is presented as a gift to Freeman in Crying Freeman (v. 3 p.109)
Sources:
Cunningham, Don. Secret Weapons of Jujutsu p.4
Sadler, A. L. Maker of Modern Japan p, 94-95
Ratti, Oscar and Adele Westbrook. Secrets of the Samurai p.263

MURASAKI SHIKIBU see also:
Genji (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.34)
Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji) 源氏物語

Murasaki Shikibu 紫式部 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.89)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1015

MURDER STONE see: sesshōseki

Muromachi Period [Muromachi jidai 室町時代] (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1017

MUSASHIBŌ BENKEI see: Benkei (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.10)

musha shugyō 武者修行 OLD FORM incorrect in the book as 武者修行. I cannot reproduce the correct form here. (The Anime Companion 2 p.58)
Sources:
Skoss, Diane, ed. Koryu Bujutsu p.167
Turnbull, Stephen. The Lone Samurai and the Martial Arts p.62-63
Mushanokōji Saneatsu 武者小路実篤 (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.1022

MUSHROOM, TYPE OF see: matsutake, shiitake (The Anime Companion 2 p.83)

MUSUBI see: nigirimeshi (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.93)

Mutsu no Kuni 陸奥国
The Northernmost province of the Tōsandō on the island of Honshū (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.47), originally this province was called Michinoku no Kuni and later also known as Ōshū. It was Emishi (The Anime Companion 2 p.19) territory until they were conquered by troops led by Sakanoue no Tamuramaro in the 9th century. In 1094 Fujiwara no Kiyohira and his vassals took control of the area making Hiraizumi their headquarters. These Ōshū Fujiwara ruled the area until they were overthrown in 1189. During the Muromachi Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90) the Date family came to control the southern part of Mutsu no Kuni while the Nambu family controlled the north. During the Edo Period (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.25) Mutsu no Kuni was divided into 20 han (The Anime Companion 2 p.26), the strongest of these were Aizu han (The Anime Companion 2 p.4) and Sendai. Today the area that was Mutsu no Kuni is divided up among Aomori Ken, Iwate Ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.33), Miyagi Ken (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.86), Fukushima Ken (The Anime Companion 2 p.22) and a little of Akita Ken.
Manga:
Rōben and Gao travel to Hiraizumi in "Ohshu" in Phoenix (v.4 Karma p.113)
The gold mines of the shōgun (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.123) in Mutsu are mentioned in Lone Wolf and Cub (v. 6 p.182)
Sources:
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p. 1025

MUTSU PROVINCE see: Mutsu no Kuni

My City マイシテイ (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.90)
Sources:
A Look Into Tokyo p.149
Myōhōrengekyō (Lotus Sutra) 妙法蓮華経
The Sutra of the Lotus of the Wonderful Dharma, also known as The Lotus Sutra, Ichijōkyō and often abbreviated as Hokekyō and Hokkekyo. The original sanskrit name of this early Mahayana Buddhist (see: Bukkyō, The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.15) sutra is the Saddharma-pundarīke-sūtra. This sutra is a popular one in both China, where it was translated in the 5th century, and Japan, where it is mentioned in 7th century documents. The Myōhōrengekyō is a major text in Tendaishū (Tendai sect) and Nichirenshū (Nichiren sect) Buddhism. The Myōhōrengekyō was of great importance to Sōtō (Sōtōshū) Zen master Dōgen (The Anime Companion [vol.1] p.23) and reformist bōzu (Buddhist priest or monk) Nichiren who urged the chanting of the phrase "Namu Myōhōrengekyō" as a devotional activity. The Myōhōrengekyō is one of the Chingo Kokka no Sambukyō (Three Sutras for the Protection of the Country). One chapter, the 25th, is so popular that is is sometimes treated as a separate sutra called the Kannongyō.
Manga:
One of the Ihoro folk quotes the 14th chapter of the Lotus Sutra as he explains his people are also called the Fūma in Path of the Assassin (v.8 p.223).
Sources:
Inagaki Hisao. A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms p.219
Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia p.903
Miner, Earl; Odagiri Hiroko and Robert Morrell. The Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature p.385-388
Web Site:

MYSTERY MANGA see: suiri manga (detection manga)


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Created: October 31, 1998

Updated: September 30, 2012